Geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays
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Geertz s Cultural Anthropology
I m Dr. Nicholas Herriman, anthropology lecturer at La Trobe Uni. This is part of It comes from my subject Symbols & Society http://
The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays - CS376
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The Interpretation of Cultures by Clifford Geertz - Goodreads
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The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays by Clifford Geertz - MIT
Shooting Holes in Wounding Theories: III. Myths, Misconceptions and geertz of cultures essays, Miscalculations. If I haven't already gotten someone into a stew with what I've said so far, I'm certain to do so now. Writing. I want to examine some very popular myths, misconceptions and miscalculations of terminal effects with a view to demonstrating not only why they are not true, but also to account for the phenomena which caused them to be formulated. I think that's fair. If I can't explain to your satisfaction the observed phenomena that supports your favorite stopping power theory, I can't ask you to ditch it. III.
A. The Mythology of Wound Lethality. III. A. Of Cultures Selected Essays. i. Kinetic Energy, Part I: Energy Dump, Overpenetration and Hydrostatic Shock I lump together energy dump theories, the concept of overpenetration and writing in context essay, the arguments involving the term hydrostatic shock because they all tend to share a common idea, which is that the abrupt deposition of the kinetic energy of the bullet is responsible for its lethality. I don't wish to be misunderstood and we are in danger of this discussion being taken for a mere matter of the interpretation of cultures selected, semantics, so let me be clear: the salient point is that the adherants of these views are fixated on the idea of the essay horse rapid transfer of energy to the target, rather than on the mechanics of the work being done by the bullet in terms of of cultures selected essays, wounding (i.e., penetration and essay on war, cavitation). Specifically, in the extreme, some such advocates have emphasized the geertz the interpretation selected temporary cavity produced by the bullet with little regard for the permanent cavity created. There is a prevalent belief that a bullet which remains inside a target is more effective in terms of stopping or killing power than one which completely penetrates; the research paper idea being that all of the kinetic energy has been spent inside the geertz essays game animal. It seems reasonable. Why wouldn't it be true? This belief is research not new. Colonel Townsend Whelen writes in his very illuminating treatise, Small Arms Design and Ballistics , that the thought at that time was that the ideal bullet should just shoot through the animal to its opposite side, and the interpretation, lodge under the thesis plc asset management skin without penetrating clear through, thus expending all its energy on the beast (p.
137). The time he is the interpretation selected essays describing is the plc asset management latter half of the 19th century when the weapons were rifles of geertz selected, .45 caliber, shooting a bullet of 350 to writing in context 550 grains and with a charge of black powder sufficient to give it a muzzle velocity of from 1300 to 1500 fps (p. 136). Even in these early days of ballistics inquiry the significance of kinetic energy was being examined. Unfortunately the geertz the interpretation selected essays conclusion reached by some is mistaken, or at the very least misdirected.
It is interesting that the 19th century model of energy dump required the bullet to completely pass through the body, but stop under the skin on essay the off-side; combining the features of an energy dump with lethal penetration and cavitation. If such arguments invariably took this position there would be little or nothing to argue against. The arguments heard today have been around for decades. Geertz Selected. Consider the following excerpt from an article written by (then) Major Charles Askins Jr. of the US Border Patrol that appeared in moderating coursework the November 1930 issue of of cultures essays, The American Rifleman : Let a man tell what he considers ideal penetration, and he will state that is where a bullet goes through an animal, lodging in the skin on the opposite side. Essays On Science And Society. He doesn't like to say that the bullet went entirely through, making a big hole on the opposite side, and going on, because he very well knows that the bullet would then be expending part of the energy after it got through.
He is obsessed with the conviction that the missile must spend all of its energy within the the interpretation selected essays beast, or else it is a defective bullet. Now, with some misgivings I question the wisdom of all this. I believe that if we could have a bullet which would pass entirely through the game - a brown bear, say - and make a hole on the other side as big as your two fists, we'd get that bear. Same thing with anything else we shot. There are at least two contemporary variations on the energy dump premise. The principal argument seems to center on the concept of overpenetration, which is moderating coursework essentially the same thought as expressed in of cultures the 19th century but with the research paper added evidence of actual results from gunfights on of cultures selected the street (the chief culprit being the rather pointed 9 mm FMJ bullet). Bullets which overpenetrate do not stop opponents as readily as those that remain in the body, it is alleged. Therefore, if the energy isn't wasted on plc asset management exit, the geertz of cultures bullet is more effective. Right? Not necessarily. It depends on the target as well as the load under consideration.
A bullet of a given construction and impact velocity will create a cavity of predictable dimensions over its path, whether it stops or penetrates completely. Therefore, if the hole created can penetrate all the way through, it causes more damage than if it stops at coursework, some point. Geertz Of Cultures Essays. Obviously, we can have a bullet that expands even more violently than this (or disintegrates) and which will never exit the target of interest. How would it compare to the foregoing case of (let us say) controlled expansion? The critical issue here is what sort of hole are we making, not whether it goes all the way through. Overpenetration is a misnomer.
The ineffective stopping attributed to overpenetration of handgun bullets (to the extent that its even fair criticism) is thesis management actually caused by inadequate cavitation (not surprisingly for a pointed FMJ). Let's make a practical comparison of extremes. Consider a .41 Magnum load with a 280 grain LBT-style WFN hard cast bullet with an impact velocity of 1400 fps. Now, comprare this load with a .224 caliber 55 grain Nosler Ballistic-Tip having an the interpretation of cultures selected, impact velocity of 2800 fps. In Context Essay. These two loads have exactly the same kinetic energy at impact: 957 ft-lbs. Of Cultures Selected. However, their respective terminal behaviors are very different. At this velocity, the essay on war horse 55 grain Ballistic Tip would not exit anything larger than a varmint, say a coyote. The .41 Magnum load will easily break both shoulders on an elk and exit. Between these two loads, the .224 Ballistic Tip would be the better performer on smaller game (or human targets), but I am confident that the advocacy for its use on game such as elk and bear would be very much in the minority, and the interpretation selected essays, rightly so.
It would definitely deliver more energy to thesis plc asset the target, but its effectiveness would suffer from inadequate penetration. So, the energy deposition in the target is not the sole or even the primary determinant of the utility of the load. If there were an ideal case from the standpoint of efficiency , I suppose it would be for a bullet which completely, but just barely, penetrated and fell to the ground. One must appreciate the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. (The engine tunings of dragsters are not efficient!) In this case the bullet has done all the damage that it can do to that particular target at geertz the interpretation selected, that particular angle of entry. The problem here, of course, is that one cannot predict the exact size and toughness of the game encountered, or the on war exact range, which would have to be known in order to achieve the precise impact velocity required for of cultures selected essays ideal efficiency.
All of these uncertainties drive bullet loads to exceed the minimum performance, and this is accomplished by essay, designing a bullet that will create an adequate cavity while deeply penetrating over a wide range of impact velocities. Naturally, at some ranges the essays bullet may exit with considerable residual velocity. This wasted energy is irrelevant if the wound is essay horse adequate. At this point I again call attention to my previously stated definition of geertz of cultures essays, adequate, namely a wound track of 0.75 to 1.00 inches (19 to 25 mm) in diameter through heart, lungs or major arteries. A smaller hole through major arteries only plc asset (for example) will kill, but the geertz of cultures selected game may run a significant distance and be lost. It is coursework also infinitely more difficult to track wounded game without a blood trail than with one that looks as if it were painted with a roller, and entrance wounds rarely bleed much. A larger cavity at shallow depth may drop a game animal instantly, but what is gained by geertz the interpretation of cultures selected, less than 25 to 100 yards at the risk of an inadequate wound if a difficult angle is involved or major bones intervene or the bullet self-destructs unpredictably? There are circumstances in which reducing that distance is crucial and others in which an exiting bullet can be a liability. It is not a cut and dried issue.
In general though, I have come to believe that most experienced hunters prefer a generous exit wound. One could devote a lengthy essay to plc asset management the ethical considerations of the contemporary hunter, vis-a-vis what was acceptable in geertz essays times past. In the 19th century skilled hunters, who hunted for subsistence, would put their bullet through the heart or lungs and if the game ran half a mile they could still bag it. For most of us, times have changed. We lack the tracking skills of our forebears and the moral justification to use marginally effective weapons. Personally, I hold the one-shot instant kill as my ideal and therefore absolute reliability and predictability in terminal performance.
The point that I have attempted to press here (perhaps in in context essay a rambling fashion) is that complete penetration is the interpretation selected not something to avoid in management the hunting field. In fact there is good evidence that through and through wounds cause collapse quicker in many instances. Tactical considerations concerning penetration are a different matter entirely. Bullets such as the the interpretation of cultures selected Glaser Safety Slug were designed primarily with tactical considerations in mind, rather than optimal wounding. Horse. Glasers are designed not to penetrate aircraft or sheetrock walls, or to geertz selected exit from the body of the research papers the kid target and endanger someone immediately behind. Glasers and selected essays, similar such designs create extremely effective wounds if they do not have to penetrate deeply in order to reach the vitals of the target. However, it is this end of the moderating design spectrum that is problematic. Taken in its extreme, were the geertz selected essays mere deposition of energy by any mechanism or in any fashion the sole object of bullet design, then it would be fairly simple to design a bullet that would never exit practically any target. It would be extremely frangible in construction and provide very shallow penetration.
In fact, it need not penetrate at all. Consider a hypothetical example of two projectiles with equal kinetic energies. Papers On Billy. One is a 1 lb gel-filled bag launched at 60 fps. The other is a 490 gr broadhead arrow travelling at 225 fps. Geertz The Interpretation Essays. Both have a kinetic energy of 55 ft-lbs. Which would you rather be hit by?
The kinetic energy of the gel-filled bag would be completely absorbed on impact, probably causing a painful contusion; but it wouldn't kill unless it just happened to break your neck. The arrow would easily and completely penetrate a human torso from writing in context any angle and continue travelling with residual energy, but prove highly lethal. However, one might object, we're only considering a mere 55 ft-lbs. What happens when the energy levels are comparable to the interpretation that of a high powered rifle? An excellent counter-point. (Apparently I confused some in the past, so here is a clearer explanation) Assume 3000 ft-lbs of thesis management, kinetic energy, about the interpretation of cultures selected essays that of a .338 caliber, 250 grain Nosler Partition fired from a .338 Winchester Magnum with a remaining velocity of 2325 fps at 100 yards or so; well within its effective range for lethal dispatch on large game - in fact, an extremely effective load.
This equates, in strict energy terms, to a tackle by a 225 pound defensive end moving at 20 mph (29.3 fps). That sounds like quite a smackdown and I daresay it would clobber most people and a lot of big game, but its also rarely injurious, let alone fatal. It is not the 3000 ft-lbs of energy itself that kills, it is the character of the work done by it. Another example of the fallacy of the energy dump theory of stopping power is one from my own experience. I once shot a thin metal screen with my 41 Magnum (210 gr. HP, 1350 fps, 850 ft-lbs) at a very close range ( do not try this at home!). The bullet was completely stopped; it lay on the ground in front of the mesh screen. The screen apparently had completely absorbed all of the moderating coursework kinetic energy of the bullet.
However, the screen suffered no serious damage; there was only a faint depression where the selected bullet had struck and glanced. What actually occurred is moderating coursework that the screen gave against some tall grass when impacted and the interpretation essays, caught the bullet like a catcher's mitt. When I attempted to reproduce this spectacular behavior for profile research a friend of mine, the screen was supported so that it did not give and selected essays, was easily perforated by the bullets. This last example from personal experience graphically demonstrates why the energy dump premise is essay fundamentally flawed. In the former case the screen (with the assistance of geertz of cultures selected, some grass) completely absorbed the kinetic energy and received no damage; in the latter it was penetrated with energy to spare. Essay On War Horse. You would observe a similar result if the target were wearing body armor (admittedly, the of cultures selected essays aramid fiber absorbs part of the energy and profile paper, aids in distributing the geertz of cultures essays applied forces over moderating coursework, a larger area, but the selected same would hold true if skin had the research the kid mechanical characteristics of aramid fiber).
I wouldn't suggest that game animals or unprotected people can absorb 3000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy instantaneously (and this is essential) with complete impunity. Moreover, I can think of selected essays, no hunting bullets for rifles today which do not provide adequate penetration under most circumstances within the impact velocity range and against the game for which they are intended. But there are frangible bullets composed of compressed metal powders for coursework use in confined shooting ranges which disintegrate upon impact, expending all of geertz the interpretation of cultures selected, their kinetic energy without penetrating, and these are not suitable for hunting, although they may inflict wounds which are ultimately fatal (from infection or secondary consequences such as starvation). Profile Research Paper. Kinetic energy deposition alone is not what is sought after. Experienced hunters will affirm that deep penetration into the vitals, coupled with an geertz selected, adequate degree of destructive cavitation is essays on science and society essential for success in the field. Varmint bullets and most match bullets likewise are demonstrated miserable performers on big game, although under ideal conditions (missing all heavy bones on geertz of cultures essays a clear broadside lung shot) they can kill spectacularly against smaller bodied deer and profile research, antelope. Hit the shoulder bones or angle the shot from the rear and it is often ruinous. However, one should not assume from this that kinetic energy means nothing, or is somehow unrelated to wounding potential. Clearly, the naked human torso (and that of even large and of cultures selected essays, tough game) is far more capable of absorbing a low velocity impact than the kinetic energy of essays on science, a rifle bullet.
The rate of energy transfer to the target is vastly more important than the quantity of geertz selected essays, energy transferred. This is the technical definition of power. On Science. Anyone sunbathing on a clear summer day at the beach will receive an of cultures selected, irradiance equivalent to over 4600 ft-lbs every minute. Eventually, this bombardment by extremely high energy particles will result in sunburn, but the plc asset management body can withstand the energy it receives because it is spread over a large area and arrives at a relatively slow rate (compared with bullets). The power and intensity (power per unit area) is much less than ballistic events. The other popular contemporary misconception results from the belief that the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays rapid transfer of the kinetic energy of the bullet thereby kills instantaneously through hydrostatic shock. Research Papers The Kid. This term gets used rather loosely to describe quite a lot of things, including some actual wound mechanics, but for the sake of the geertz the interpretation of cultures following discussion I confine my reference to purported effects induced far from the wound cavity that are attributable to a shocking effect ascribed to certain bullets or loads.
I don't know where this term originated, but it is moderating pseudoscientific slang. In the first place, these are dynamic - not static - events. Moreover, hydrostatic shock is an oxymoron. Shock, in the technical sense, indicates a mechanical wave travelling in excess of the inherent sound speed of the material; it can't be static. Geertz Essays. This may be a flow related wave like a bow shock on the nose of thesis, a bullet in air or it may be a supersonic acoustic wave travelling through a solid. In terms of geertz the interpretation essays, bullets striking tissue, shock is never encountered.
The sound speed of muscle tissue has been measured to be about 5150 fps, and that of fatty tissue around 4920 fps ( A Cavitation Model for Kinetic Energy Projectiles Penetrating Gelatin , Henry C. Essay Horse. Dubin, BRL Memorandum Report No. 2423, US Army Ballistic Research Laboratories, December 1974). The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected. Even varmint bullets do not have an impact velocity this high, let alone a penetration velocity exceeding 4900 fps. Unless the bullet can penetrate faster than the inherent sound speed of the plc asset management medium through which it is passing, you will not observe a shock wave. Instead, the geertz of cultures bullet impact produces an acoustic wave which moves ahead of the penetration. The initial acoustic wave causes no damage (it has been observed in testing passing harmlessly in advance of the bullet's path). Some people use shock in the colloquial sense to describe a violent impact, but it is profile research confusing, especially in connection with the term hydrostatic and lends undeserved quasi-scientific merit to the slang. It also tends to get confused with the medical expression attending trauma. We are not describing what is meant by shock to the medical profession. The word shock should never appear in a gun journal, in my opinion. Before I become too dogmatic and overstate the situation, let me concede that there may be some merit to the idea that hydrodynamic (not hydrostatic) impulse created by bullets which have a high kinetic energy (or perhaps simply a high velocity) and generally exhibit violent cavitation (or merely generate local pressures of geertz the interpretation selected, a certain magnitude in combination with specific shotlines), can cause some secondary effects due to pressure on the nervous system or circulatory system.
In addition to the pressure induced cranial hemorrhage described previously, it is possible to kill manually by essay on war horse, nerve strangulation. In this case actual damage to the central nervous system is not caused, but the of cultures selected essays signals governing the profile research paper heart or diaphragm are shut off, resulting in instantaneous unconsciousness or even death. This sort of thing makes for lurid mythology in the martial arts and bad movies, but there is geertz the interpretation of cultures essays some real science behind it. Certain rare sports fatalities have been definitely attributed to a swift blow which interrupts the cardiac rhythm. Research Paper. Acoustic pressure on the spine can also cause temporary paralysis. These phenomena may account for the rapid effectiveness of some high-velocity hollow-point pistol bullet wounds, especially in cases in which the victim is not mortally wounded and recovers consciousness within a few minutes. Geertz Of Cultures Essays. Some special handgun loads (e.g., the THV bullet) have been designed allegedly to achieve this result. Unfortunately, this is an unreliable mechanism of incapacitation, generally obtained at the expense of essays on science, effective penetration. No bullet yet designed will produce this rapid shocking effect on demand because it depends more on the hit location and perhaps even the the interpretation of cultures selected timing of the hit than it does on research the kid the design characteristics or velocity of the bullet. Many of the handgun bullets designed to geertz use this effect can be defeated by common barriers, such as glass, sheetrock, and even clothing.
More to the point, its less a matter of the on war bullet than the specific aimpoint. Doing this deliberately by hand, even with a profound understanding of the mechanism and vital points, is extremely uncertain; using the passage of a pressure wave from a bullet to geertz the interpretation of cultures essays accomplish this falls into the freak event category. Such is profile research never an acceptable mechanism for the hunter. On the the interpretation other hand, as I have alluded to previously, some contemporary bullet designs (e.g., Nosler Ballistic Tip) as well as some renowned performers from years past (e.g., the original 130 grain bullet of the .270 Winchester and the Remington Bronze Point) achieve a high percentage of instantaneous kills by essay, blowing to bits and never exiting the geertz the interpretation of cultures game. Moderating. I find this interesting in of cultures selected view of the current obsession with avoiding bullets in which the lead cores separate from the writing in context essay jacket. There are few situations in which simple slip separation (core and jacket traveling forward together) would be disadvantageous, although complete separation invariably leaves the jacket behind, makes the core vulnerable to geertz of cultures selected essays premature fragmentation and can cause a very abrupt termination of penetration. But returning to the issue, the successful frangible bullet designs nevertheless always penetrate to the vitals and have never been regarded as reliable for rear raking shots requiring deep penetration or against very tough heavy game and most knowledgeable authorities prefer bullets which exhibit modest cavitation with deep penetration because of their flexibility in essays on science and society the field. In conclusion, if kinetic energy merely being imparted to the target is not inherently indicative of lethality, what can kinetic energy tell us about a load?
Well, the essential questions are what sort of bullet are we discussing, at what impact velocity and against what sort of selected, target? Considering all of that, though, kinetic energy can be a good indicator of the potential for cavitation when coupled with the proper bullet. III. A. ii. Momentum and Stopping Power There is another branch of armchair ballistics which favors the use of momentum as a raw measure of stopping power. I confess that I was long enamored of thesis management, this view because it seemed to give more credit to lower velocity big-bore cartridges that were strong performers than the kinetic energy story told, but momentum alone is geertz essays equally inadequate to describe terminal behavior and the arguments given in support of that view are as full of blue sky nonsense as any claim made of kinetic energy.
The old African hunters talked of stoppers which would cause a charging pachyderm to halt its forward progress in its tracks and horse, stand stock still in geertz the interpretation a daze. Writing In Context. This situation applied only to (if you carefully note the details) the geertz of cultures essays truly huge weapons such as the 8 and 4 bore blackpowder rifles and later .577 and .600 Nitro Expresses when fired into the spongy skull of an elephant, but when the brain is thesis plc asset closely missed. In this case, the impact of the blow was literally sufficient to stagger the animal. It is to be noted, however, that these ancient blackpowder weapons could only be used by men of considerable size and strength and even they dreaded pulling the trigger. Geertz Selected. Frederick Courteney Selous says that using such weapons crippled him and Sir Samuel Baker foreswore such things as soon as he developed guns and loads capable of research papers on billy the kid, dependable penetration, preferring the far less punishing 10 bore! Unless you hunt elephant with these antique monsters, and geertz the interpretation, I don't know of anyone alive who does, then stopping an animal in this sense isn't a matter of concern. From what I've read, one cannot depend upon a similar effect on the remarkably tough Cape buffalo until something like a .577 NE is used (if then), and then a well aimed shot will penetrate clean through end to end, so that its really not the same scenario at all. Proper stopping of thesis management, a charge depends on shot placement.
Similar rules apply to human targets. The human frame is so lightly constructed that any stopper class weapon will easily penetrate through even after encountering major bones. Here we have a case of massive trauma, not stopping as a result of an impact by the interpretation essays, a magnum or a big-bore powerhouse. Again, the force of the blow is comparable to research on billy the kid the recoil of the gun. It has to the interpretation of cultures be. That's physics. On Billy. In either case the the interpretation of cultures selected bullet is acting under high acceleration loads over a short distance. Research On Billy. Naturally, bullets which penetrate completely do not deliver the same impact as those that come to rest (ie, solids are felt less strongly than soft points).
There are always anecdotal accounts (invariably told by those who have never shot anyone) of people being hurled off their feet by of cultures selected, a .45 ACP using hardball when pathetic little .38 Special bullets are shrugged off without effect. In actuality, there are quite as many incidents of people shrugging off .45 slugs as for many lesser calibers. It is hypothetically possible for the impact to cause a pressure pulse of such magnitude through the body of the target, that it is instantly killed (notice I deliberately avoided the word shock). This happens, for example, when you shoot a chipmunk with a .30-`06, even if the chipmunk wears body armor. It doesn't happen often (if ever) against big game and and society, humans with ordinary (ie, shoulder fired) weapons (NOTE: I'm not referring here to hits against the central nervous system, or to any hit which results in a penetration; only to hits which could kill exclusively from the force of the impact). I haven't yet seen any cases in which a wound that did not reach to geertz the interpretation of cultures the vital organs resulted in death - except as a result of septicemia. What this means is that if all of the momentum of a high-powered rifle bullet were delivered by a non-penetrating blow, the coursework damage inflicted on any game larger than a small varmint would be relatively insignificant. I've asked people who have been shot to describe their sensations of being shot, physical reactions, etc. The common response is that the the interpretation of cultures selected impact feels precisely like the impact of a punch.
It is not any more impressive. This is consistent with other testimony that I have read, and serves as a useful analogy for argument. A punch is not staggering unless it also causes debilitating damage, usually to the brain, but alternatively to the lungs, etc. - or in in context the case of the of cultures selected victim being surprised, off balance, etc. The impact of a bullet behaves according to profile similar constraints, all things being relative (ie, a .458 Winchester Magnum causes relatively more of an impact to a man than to an elephant because of the the interpretation selected essays size difference, assuming the force of the impact is absorbed in both cases). The actual momentum transfer of a typical hunting bullet is slightly less than that of the gel-filled 1 lb bag previously described, and if one were wearing body armor to research slow the geertz of cultures selected absorbtion of energy at impact, that is what would be felt - a good solid thump. Papers The Kid. With the body armor one's body absorbs all of the kinetic energy and momentum without harm, without it the the interpretation of cultures selected bullet penetrates and exits using only a portion of its kinetic energy and momentum but delivers a lethal wound. Interestingly, in the case of body armor, the research the kid impulse is higher than if the bullet penetrates and exits, yet it is intuitively apparent which of geertz of cultures selected, these two scenarios is lethal and which is insignificant. Were that not the case, then body armor would be ineffective. Many readers will doubt the truth of this assertion. Some will say, I have actually seen a deer do a complete somersault!.
Many people have, but it wasn't caused by the force of the management impact. For the skeptical among you, if you require proof that the spectacular flips often reported are merely an apparent effect of the bullet impact, I challenge you to the interpretation rent a video of dangerous game hunting in plc asset management Africa and observe the effect of bullet impact on downed, already dead, animals when the insurance shot is made. This practice isn't carried out on deer and it separates the effect of the geertz bullet from the effect of the living animal. Plc Asset Management. Lions and even buffalo may seem to flip high in the air, but if they are dead the bodies only quiver ever so slightly; its barely visible, and these are shots through the most massive shoulder and spinal bones, delivering the greatest resistance and impact with very powerful rifles. Alternatively, you can perform a penetration test into wet phonebooks that completely absorbs the impact in of cultures selected essays a manner very similar to a game animal. I have shot 28 inches of saturated phonebooks in thesis a plastic tub (weighing approximately 80 lbs - comparable to a small deer) with a .340 Weatherby Magnum firing a 225 grain bullet at the interpretation, 2900 fps (at ten feet). The wetpack did not budge, although the papers on billy the kid plastic tub rested on a smooth surface.
More recently, that same load was used to geertz of cultures essays kill a springbok in Namibia. My first shot seemed to crush the diminutive antelope in its tracks. After perhaps a half a minute or more the animal staggered to essays on science and society its feet and began to geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays graze, though bleeding profusely from its wound unawares. I shot it lengthwise of its body. It did not move at all this time, but after a few seconds it pitched over profile paper, sideways, stiff-legged and dead.
Same load, but the numbed beast did not feel the second impact, even though the selected bullet did not exit. I have conducted the same test into a wetpack using a .458 Winchester Magnum firing a 500 grain bullet with the same result - no movement. Competitive shooters in essay on war the sport of metallic silhouette are quite familiar with this. The big 200 meter rams weigh about 25 kg or 55 lb, but can be toppled over by most of the more powerful cartridges. Geertz The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected. We're talking about, at most, a 220 grain bullet at say 2000 fps or a 150 grain bullet at maybe 2500 fps. So, now if we move those bullets along at on war, only a few hundred more fps, to geertz selected essays about 2500 fps and thesis plc asset management, 3000 fps, respectively, they aren't suddenly going to acquire the ability to take an geertz the interpretation, animal weighing ten times as much and throw it into the air. There is some force imparted, but its just not that dramatic. A big .375 Holland Holland delivers more wallop than a .30-06 Springfield, but even a .577 Tyrannosaur has less than five times the momentum of a .30-06 - we are a long way from the kind of profile, values necessary to produce the effects claimed. Again, its comparable to geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays the recoil.
The same fallacy as seen with kinetic energy dump theories can be demonstrated with respect to essays momentum-based stopping power theories by substituting a 3 lb spear moving at 50 fps alongside a 3 lb gel-filled plastic bag moving at the same velocity. Now we have two projectiles with exactly the same masses and momentum. Intuitively, we can evaluate the relative lethality of geertz the interpretation, these two weapons without field testing. Incidentally, these both produce the same momentum as a .458 Winchester Magnum loaded with 500 grain bullets. The .458 Winchester Magnum is a heavy hitter. Do you think that a Cape buffalo would be staggered by the mere impact of a 3 lb gel-filled bag? A haymaker punch (15 fps), using about 50% of the body weight of research, a 180 lb man would have a kinetic energy of about 300 ft-lbs, but a momentum over eight times greater than that of a .458 Winchester Magnum or .450 Rigby Nitro Express; indeed a hard swift jab (50 fps) would have a kinetic energy of of cultures, still only thesis about 350 ft-lbs, but a momentum almost three times greater than the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays standard in stopping class rifles! I wouldn't even dream of punching a Cape buffalo. So, stepping aside from the idea that stopping power is a function of momentum, what can we ascertain from the relative momentum of a particular load?
Does it convey anything? Well, without knowing the specific bullet (caliber, brand, design, etc) and the impact velocity, we can't make absolute statements about performance. However, that aside, momentum is in coursework general terms a good measure of the potential for penetration. This potential will only be realized with the geertz the interpretation of cultures proper bullet and, as will be shown in profile the next article in this series, a relatively mild handgun load can easily penetrate more than a very potent rifle load with more than twice the momentum. But, high momentum can translate into deep penetration with the right bullet. III. A. iii. Kinetic Energy, Part 2: Thresholds of Wounding Potential Based on Kinetic Energy. I think it was the sage and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, revered (and great favorite of mine) Col. Townsend Whelen who first proposed the moderating idea that modern sporting arms ought to deliver at least 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on the target for quick dispatch of deer and 2000 ft-lbs for larger species such as elk (Craig Boddington, American Hunting Rifles , Safari Press, 1995, pg. 20).
This guidance has been reiterated for probably half a century or more now, but the world of smallbore ballistics today is very different than in the days when the esteemed Colonel was at of cultures, the forefront of modern military small arms development with the U. S. Army Ordnance Department. Moreover, here is what he had to say in his own treatise on the subject of Killing Power over seventy years ago: The killing power of a bullet in flight depends entirely upon the average size of the wound it makes in the animal, and upon nothing else. The size of the wound in turn depends upon the size, weight, construction, and shape of the bullet, and thesis plc asset management, the velocity with which it strikes, and upon no other details. Geertz Of Cultures Selected. . We frequently see it stated that the killing power of a cartridge depends upon its energy, and tables of the properties of cartridges often give the energy of each. Now energy depends upon the weight of the bullet times its velocity, and on nothing else, and thus can have only a very distant bearing on coursework our subject. (Townsend Whelen, The Hunting Rifle , Stackpole Sons, 1940, pg. 236) An important fact to remember is that not all energy is created equal. What this ultimately means is geertz of cultures selected essays that a kinetic energy value used as a measure or threshold for lethality is practically meaningless. Papers On Billy. The character of the work done by a certain quantity of kinetic energy will be dependent upon the mass, construction and velocity of the projectile. In other words, 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy generated by a slow-moving rock is not as lethal as that of a bullet.
Furthermore, the damage actually caused by a lesser amount of kinetic energy may easily exceed that caused by a greater quantity of kinetic energy! Expressed differently, kinetic energy has quality as well as quantity. This is easier to understand in terms of heat energy, which has temperature (degrees F or C) as well as quantity (BTUs or Joules). Geertz Selected. Kinetic energy is governed by similar laws. As further evidence of this fact, observe that when terminal ballistic experiments are scaled the essay on war velocity is of cultures held constant. Kinetic energy, mass and the dimensions are scaled, but velocity is not. Moderating Coursework. In like manner pure water at standard pressure boils at 100° C, regardless of quantity. A small amount of water does not boil at a lower temperature than a larger amount.
The heat required to bring a quantity of water to a boil is directly proportional to the mass of the water (just as the kinetic energy is proportional to the volume of displacement by a bullet), but the character of the work done on the water by that heat energy is determined by the temperature it produces. It is velocity, not kinetic energy, which is the geertz of cultures selected essays quantity of essay on war, greatest interest in the terminal ballistics of small arms. Since a knowledge of the velocity and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, projectile construction is essential to evaluating the character of the kinetic energy and its wounding potential, simply relying on a quantity of energy can be quite misleading. Papers On Billy The Kid. The way in which a sporting bullet (say, a 7 mm 140 gr spitzer boat-tail at an impact velocity of 3000 fps) expends its first 1000 ft-lbs of kinetic energy on a target (from 2797 ft-lbs to 1797 ft-lbs) will little resemble the way in which it expends its last 1000 ft-lbs (at an impact velocity of 1794 fps, where it will most likely fail to deform and simply drill straight through causing a neat little hole with negligible cavitation). In the former case, a lung shot would result in geertz the interpretation of cultures selected a wide wound track and a gaping exit wound as it exits the body at 2405 fps, but cause rapid collapse; in the latter case even a lengthwise shot which fully absorbed the energy of the projectile would probably mean a lost game animal because of the profile research low probability of causing rapid hemorrhage. Interestingly, in the former case probably 20% or more of that kinetic energy would be lost to deformation of the bullet, whereas in geertz selected the latter case all of it would be delivered to the target. However, that same 1000 ft-lbs of energy delivered by a .41 caliber 280 gr LBT-WFN flatnosed hard-cast bullet at research on billy, 1268 fps would quickly drop a bull elk with the same lung or lengthwise shot because its larger diameter and strong flat nose would create a large diameter and deep wound even after smashing through heavy shoulder bones. (Incidentally, this misunderstanding is not confined to the ballistics of sporting arms. I have encountered the notion in recent years in my profession of a tank killing threshold of the interpretation selected, 10 MJ.) A popular term among some gun buffs is (or once was) the foot-ton, a magical quanta of kinetic energy that is supposed to translate into all sorts of killing authority. Aside from the problem described above in assigning an arbitrary kinetic energy level for lethality against a type of game, there is the matter of unit definitions.
If you like to think of thesis plc asset, it as the energy required to raise a one ton block a distance of one foot, that would be correct (again, not necessarily the same as being crushed by that falling block!). Forget the comparison to automobile impacts. Two foot-tons of selected, kinetic energy does not equate with the impact of paper, a full-size sedan. However, simply because an arbitrary quantity of kinetic energy is not, in geertz essays and of papers, itself, sufficient to describe the wounding characteristics of our weapons does not imply that kinetic energy is not a valid measure of ballistic performance. We need not be reactionary or worse yet suppose that someone got it wrong and that what we need is a better formula for kinetic energy. This truly novel and geertz the interpretation of cultures essays, disturbing misconception was once highlighted in a feature article, the essence of thesis, which was that kinetic energy is simply the arbitrary fabrication of some gun writer, not based on physical laws, and is fundamentally incorrect. Reading something like this, its as if the cancerous pseudoscience of geertz the interpretation of cultures selected, gun writers has spread to corrupt even the hallowed precepts of true science. I shouldn't make it seem as if the on war horse author of this particular article were alone in his assumptions. The history of geertz the interpretation of cultures, popular terminal ballistics in the 20th century saw several examples of this kind of crackpot science, such as Elmer Keith's ridiculous invention of pounds-feet.
What is most astounding about particular outrage against science and clear reasoning is thesis that the (long since departed) editors of the magazine didn't know enough themselves to selected essays prevent its publication. I expect this sort of thing in cyberspace, where ignorance abounds, but I expect a higher standard from publishers (incidentally, the present editorial staff has a much more scientifically founded perspective). Men like Townsend Whelen knew their basic science and would not have made such errors, nor permitted them to be published in their journal. It troubles me that our knowledge has diminished so much in 70 years. When gun writers attempt to plc asset describe terminal ballistics in the interpretation essays terms more technical than wallop they take on the mantle of science and bear the responsibility to their readership to convey an accurate discussion of the mechanisms involved. Science does not merely belong to scientists nor only in papers the kid the realm of the scientific journal. It is truth on a fundamental level.
There are no everyday meanings to terms such as velocity, momentum, kinetic energy and the interpretation selected, impulse. They are not slang or jargon used to describe nebulous, ill-defined concepts. They hold precise meanings. To carelessly misuse scientific language is to render a disservice to profile research the readership, even though it be predominately composed of non-technical readers. Before going any further let me make an apology to the reader. This article and the interpretation selected, the letter exchange is now ancient history.
It was not my intent then nor is it now to pillory anyone. I wrote my own letters to the editor of the magazine at the time in hopes of inspiring a more fastidious editorship in terms of technical matter. I feel justified in rehashing the argument in cyberspace because it represents a viewpoint with which I suspect many reasonably educated shooters would sympathize - and I don't mean my viewpoint! I understand that much of what I am pressing here seems arcane and unimportant to most shooters. And Society. But the geertz of cultures essays integrity of such concepts is the fundamental underpinning to all ballistics, the thesis plc asset management technology on which we depend.
Is it necessary for the average shooter to understand all these concepts and be thoroughly conversant? No, it is not. However, when they are discussed, the the interpretation of cultures discussion needs to be scientifically correct. I guess I expect too much and perhaps I am being too critical, but whether the average Joe understands the ins and outs of physics is essay on war horse not the issue - its the essays attitude that accredited science is no better than hip-pocket hooey that bothers me. Its the attitude that science is based on opinion, rather than fact. Essays On Science And Society. Its the same mentality that has lead to the wholesale disrespect of geertz of cultures selected, science in America, and profile research paper, that has allowed a culture to flourish with notions such as New Age mysticism, literalist religious extremism trumping science in the classroom and denial of global warming despite undeniable evidence. Those who throw around quasi-technical terms without understanding them only create confusion. Velocity is not impulse. Selected Essays. It is not like impulse.
Kinetic energy is not momentum and velocity combined. Momentum will not describe the load with the hardest thump. Coursework. There is no room in true science for a private opinion about geertz essays a better definition of energy, and those who ask Is the ft-lb an on war horse, accurate KE label? should not be published. This kind of tabloid quality science is overtaking the firearms community. In the of cultures selected age of bioengineering, quantum electronics and relativistic physics, the firearms community is becoming mired in a level of scientific ignorance comparable to Medieval Europe. The truth is not marketable but crackpot theories about better formulas for kinetic energy warrant feature articles.
Falsehood and error need to be corrected. Those of us who care about the quality of the literature and the accuracy of the inquiry into terminal ballistics bear the responsibility to repudiate the nonsense and to authoritatively instruct concerning the facts. Since this has proved to be a pitfall for some I will unravel the research paper mystery. The definition of energy is based upon geertz selected, physical laws. A ft-lb is a valid unit of kinetic energy - by definition. There is nothing to prove. The unit definition has nothing to do with antiquated perspectives on energy. Kinetic energy is calculated as (1/2) mass times velocity squared.
But pounds are actually a unit of force (i.e., weight), which is mass times acceleration (due to gravity in this case). So, to get kinetic energy we must divide by 32.174 ft/s 2 , which reduces the profile velocity squared terms of ft 2 /s 2 simply to feet. This leaves units that correspond to another definition of energy, being force times distance. Its really only confusing in the old English system of geertz essays, units because we normally think of pounds as mass rather than as force; in metric its obvious that all forms of energy are the same thing because they are all in Joules or kg-m 2 /s 2 . Just in in context essay case somebody doesn't know, foot-pounds are a real quantity and the interpretation selected essays, can be converted into BTUs, Joules, kilowatt-hours, calories, ergs, electron-volts or any other measure of energy as you please. All of profile, these resolve down to geertz the interpretation selected the same fundamental quantities of mass times distance (divided by time) squared. Papers On Billy. Not all energy is the geertz the interpretation same, but all energy has the same fundamental units. Kinetic energy was not invented for the delight of gun writers. The different definitions of energy are based upon inter-related physical laws, none of which have been overturned since God created the universe, let alone in on war horse the last century.
Offering correction is as uncomfortable for the corrector as for the one being corrected. Geertz Of Cultures Selected. It disappoints me that many people actually despise or fear the truth (I am not pointing a finger here, this is a general observation more applicable to web forums and fireside talk). It is a subtle thing, typically taking the form of on billy, a resistance to let go of cherished misconceptions and the interpretation of cultures, an egoistic tendency that we all share to be knowledgeable. I have been proved wrong many times in profile paper my life and while the geertz the interpretation selected essays experience is not always a comfortable one, I am happier for being corrected. Moderating. Not everyone is geertz the interpretation of cultures made happier by correction. An even more troublesome tendency that I have encountered is the insistence that everything is subjective, that fact and opinion are equivalent. This viewpoint holds that objective reality has no inherent meaning, science is just a matter of expert opinion and such experts are plentiful.
If, as some have contended, all measured data such as penetration depth and wound diameter (even in game animals) provide us no absolute knowledge, if any degree of uncertainty removes all hope of on science and society, understanding, then truly we have embraced superstition (or a weird form of agnosticism) and are equally well served by consulting an astrologer about the performance of geertz the interpretation of cultures essays, our weapons. III. On Science And Society. A. iv. The Bullet Zipped Straight Through I see this kind of thing referenced persistently on web forums and in the customer product reviews at of cultures selected, Midway. Paper. The prevalent belief is the interpretation of cultures essays that some bullets, by dint of poor design or insufficient velocity (or perhaps even because they have too high an impact velocity - how does that work?), will pass through an animal without expanding or imparting any appreciable amount of their kinetic energy or causing any respectable wound.
It is an extenuation of the overpenetration worry that many hunters have, which gives rise to the suspicion that their bullets do not expand properly. It is, of course, rubbish. Almost all of moderating, these anecdotes describe situations in which the the interpretation of cultures selected essays game is in fact bagged, because the curious detail of a tiny exit wound is invariably a feature, indeed the key piece of on billy the kid, evidence, offered to justify the accusation of sub-par performance. I have never once seen such a claim accompanied by any depiction of geertz selected essays, a post-mortem. Had it been done, I believe almost all of these situations would never be reported because it would be apparent that the plc asset management bullet had performed very well, despite the small exit hole in the hide. Of course the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected bullets are never recovered in such scenarios, so there is on billy the kid no hard physical evidence to contradict the claim of of cultures essays, no expansion. Nosler Partitions of .308 caliber and smaller, Barnes X-Bullets and most other monolithic bullets as well as a number of softer cup and core designed bullets will make a small exit wound.
The smaller caliber Nosler Partitions and on war horse, the soft cup and core bullets end up, not with a wide expanded mushroom, but instead with the jacket laid back tight against the remaining shank of the bullet. The monolithic bullets can shed petals at higher impact velocities, but even if they don't the geertz of cultures selected essays exit wounds may be small. The only instance of an expanding bullet that failed to expand that I have observed was an original Barnes X-Bullet that struck fully sideways making a perfect keyhole in the hide so, obviously, it wouldn't be expected to expand. The tip was mashed over as it tumbled. It was, by the way, extremely effective for all that, churning across the thorax and ending up buried in essay on war the opposite hind leg.
The warthog thrashed around for a few seconds, but barely moved. There is a prevalent tendency to believe that killing power is geertz selected attributable to the cartridge chambering, rather than to the bullet and impact velocity. Please don't think me facetious. Obviously, ultra magnums produce more velocity and can send the same bullet downrange with far greater kinetic energy than a cartridge of the same caliber based on the Mauser or 1906 Springfield base case. More propellant in the case translates into more muzzle energy. However, by the same reasoning, at some distance downrange no cartridge is any more potent than any other cartridge of like caliber when that bullet has achieved the same velocity.
The .300 Shock Awe Magnum firing a 180 grain bullet at research the kid, a muzzle velocity of 3200 fps is no more potent at 500 yards than a .30-40 Krag-Jorgensen at the muzzle, and an elk shot at that range wouldn't know the difference between that bullet and one fired at close range from the humble Krag. Yet I seriously doubt if the geertz of cultures advocates of overbore magnums, and of shooting at in context, game at of cultures essays, distances in excess of 400 yards, routinely consider that their weapons are equivalent to cartridges that were in vogue in 1920 when used at such extreme distances. What increased muzzle velocity has purchased hunters over the last 150 years or so is principally increased range, at the expense of reliability in some cases at the closer distances in which game will most often be encountered. Essay On War Horse. I am not opposed to high velocity, it is generally a good thing, but there is a point of diminishing return. And there is nothing magical about geertz essays any cartridge, no intrinsic property that imbues its projectiles with special lethality. Essays On Science. Cartridges are simply containers of propellant stoppered with bullets. Of Cultures Selected Essays. Choose the ones that make sense in terms of the bullet weights that you use and the ranges that you hunt and don't be misled by thesis plc asset, hype about the supposed power of geertz of cultures selected essays, others because, as we will see in Part IV, higher velocity doesn't increase wound size as much as one might expect. III.
B. Miscalculations of Lethality. The following sections describe a series of quasi-scientific attempts to describe bullet load effectiveness. All of these are relatively simple relationships of basic quantities: bullet weight and/or diameter, sectional density and muzzle or impact velocity. Each is an essays and society, attempt to go beyond the measure of merit of kinetic energy or momentum alone and produce a more accurate and realistic measure of selected, performance. Each has its following and writing, some are quite well regarded. The OGW formula was published in geertz the interpretation of cultures selected the April 1992 issue of GUNS magazine and has since appeared in several references. It is purportedly the result of writing in context essay, careful examination of the various contributions of kinetic energy, momentum, bullet sectional density, bullet diameter, bullet nose configuration, impact velocity and a number of other criteria (pg. The Interpretation Essays. 62) to thesis management terminal effect. Essays. The author, without elaborating on his methodology, settled on the following formula: OGW (lbs) = Velocity (fps) 3 x Bullet Weight (grains) 2 x 1.5 x 10 -12.
This is, of course, nothing more than kinetic energy multiplied by essay on war, momentum, then multiplied by some constant to arrive at the desired weight range (momentum is selected actually velocity times mass, not velocity times weight, but the two are related by a constant). There is absolutely nothing magical about the game weights derived by this calculation; they are entirely the result of a subjective selection of the constant (i.e., 1.5 x 10 -12 divided by the acceleration due to gravity). Although the choice of this constant may be assumed to be based upon sage judgement, drawing on years of field experience, the result is merely a scaling factor. The only terms in this calculation are velocity and bullet weight. The basic premise of the formula is worthy of closer examination.
The OGW formula attempts to combine in one measure the separate contributions of kinetic energy and momentum, or perhaps the two schools of thought: fast and disruptive versus slow and deep. This is well intentioned; however, simply multiplying the two values is an unacceptable method of deriving a composite effect. For instance, a certain load may have a very high velocity and therefore a high kinetic energy, yet have a very light bullet weight and moderating, a correspondingly low momentum. How will it perform? The most useful description of its performance would be found by separating its component functions, cavitation and penetration, and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected, analyzing these in relation to the game in question. From experience, we know that very lightweight, small-bore ultra-velocity loads are poor performers against large game. Yet an research on billy the kid, 85 grain .243 cal light game bullet traveling at 3500 fps would have an geertz of cultures, OGW rating of 389 lbs at the muzzle! Compare this to a 575 grain ball traveling at papers, 850 fps with an OGW rating of 305 lbs. The former load is appropriate only for coyotes, jackrabbits and very lightly framed deer.
The latter load is for a 16 bore howdah pistol intended to stop charging tigers! Important caveats are in order. Geertz Of Cultures. The author included an profile paper, exhaustive list of cartridges and loads, but the distinctions of of cultures selected, OGW are only applicable between bullet weights and velocities. The model itself makes no consideration whatsoever of the essays on science effect of the interpretation of cultures, sectional density, bullet diameter or nose configuration, although these were considered in paper its development. Most glaringly, bullet construction is neglected. A 150 gr. bullet moving at 2800 fps is identical in geertz this analysis, no matter whether it be a .264 caliber RWS H-Mantel or .358 caliber Remington Core-Lokt. However, these two loads would have vastly differing performance on game. The model assumes you have selected a reasonable bullet weight and construction for the application in mind (in fairness to the author, Matunas makes this point clear, but it does beg the question of just what this model does tell you if you must already know the answer before you begin). What the OGW Table really attempts to be describe is the approximate heaviest weight of animal that could be reliably killed from in context any angle using modern high-powered cartridges (not 19th century big-bore blackpowder weapons or even early 20th century weapons), assuming the bullet selected was reasonable. Strictly speaking, a true optimum game weight would be that size of geertz of cultures selected essays, beast which this load killed most effectively, and any game animal either heavier or lighter would be less effectively dispatched, so the use of the on billy the kid term optimum is misplaced.
Unfortunately, by making velocity a third order term it wildly exaggerates the effect of this component in terminal behavior, which (as will be shown in Part IV) has surprisingly little meaningful effect for geertz of cultures essays deforming bullets. Moreover, the dramatic degradation in effectiveness with increasing range is also far from accurate. A typical high velocity bullet is shown to lose half its effectiveness between the muzzle and 250 yards. In practice, no meaningful loss of performance is experienced for most high velocity rifle cartridges and indeed some performance improvement may be observed with many bullets of conventional construction at moderated velocities! Worse, it suggests that if one uses light for caliber bullets, then the in context most effective employment of these projectiles is at close range and very high velocity - in direct opposition to all conventional wisdom and test data. Under these conditions very lightly constructed bullets are most likely to disintegrate.
Comparisons between different calibers and bullet weights in this analysis, as suggested by the author, are simply not valid for reasons outlined previously. I almost hate to comment on this one because it happens to be a favorite of one of the interpretation, my favorite gun writers, a man of outstanding skill and profile, a reputable hunter whose guidance in such matters should not be taken lightly (and I don't refer to Taylor!). Geertz Of Cultures Selected Essays. Taylor himself was also a man of unimpeachable experience and his views on rifles and calibers, especially for dangerous game, is taken as gospel on the subject. However, this formula has got to go. I'm sympathetic to the motivations which brought about its creation.
The smallbore cranks were a cult phenomenon at the time, preaching vehemently about high velocity and kinetic energy. A number of this following ventured to Africa, and like their predecessors in the heyday of blackpowder express cartridges, experienced miserable failures in profile research the field, sometimes with fatal consequences to the interpretation of cultures the shooter or guides. Taylor was attempting to counter this scientific kind of argument with a kind of scientific methodology. Research The Kid. Applying his many years of experience to the interpretation of cultures selected the problem (and it must be confessed, his biases as well), he developed a formula which favored the kind of bullets and research, cartridges he knew to geertz the interpretation of cultures selected work reliably: TKO = Bullet Weight (lbs) x Impact Velocity (fps) x Bullet Diameter (in) Regrettably, this formula is as misleading as any kinetic energy figures or OGW or any other I've seen. For example, a hand-thrown baseball would have roughly twice the on war TKO of the standard nitro express load. I doubt if anyone would argue that bouncing a baseball off the noggin of an elephant would produce any positive result.
Taylor himself acknowledged that there wasn't any appreciable difference in the killing performance of the geertz the interpretation of cultures essays various .400s, .416s, .450s, .465s, .470s, .475s, and .500s on dangerous game when loaded with reliable bullets of sound construction. But his TKO formula (as generally interpreted) exaggerates any difference that might exist because it makes the bore diameter equally as important as the velocity; thus a .488 caliber .475 Jeffery No. 2 is seen to moderating be 7% more potent than a .458 caliber .450 NE even though they both have the same ballistics. The comparison becomes even more exaggerated between a .450/.400 NE and a .500 NE in which the larger bore is calculated to be 55 % more potent, even though Taylor regards them as being very similar in killing performance. In fairness to the author, the TKO value is generally misinterpreted (notice that the table he provides only includes loads for solid bullets). Taylor himself said of it: I do not pretend that they [TKOs] represent killing power; but they do give an excellent basis from which any two rifles may be compared from the point of view of the actual knock-down blow, or punch, inflicted by the bullet on massive, heavy-boned animals such as elephant, rhino and buffalo. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. xii) There seems to be a lot of misunderstanding about this word shock; men seem to geertz selected be under the impression that it implies killing power.
But that is moderating coursework erroneous. ( African Rifles and Cartridges , pg. 58) Elaborating, the geertz of cultures essays author indicates that this stunning effect truly applies for the most part to papers near misses of the brain on elephant, enabling a more leisurely dispatch with a follow-up shot (possibly of lesser caliber) or, especially, permitting the shooting of other nearby elephants, while the first is down. Such tactics are no longer permissible and were never ethical in my view (Taylor was a self-acknowledged poacher). Indeed, whether his TKO is true even in this sense is a highly contentious matter, disputed by some very experienced African hunters (I will not pretend to be highly experienced in this regard, but I have seen a Cape buffalo shot between the eyes, within millimeters of its brain, with a .500 NE which did not produce any effect whatsoever). More recently, Craig Boddington has voiced a similar doubt on the basis of his observations and those of other contemporary hunters and game control officers ( Like a Freight Train , Rifle Shooter , November - December 2009, pgs.
38 - 42). But the point here is that Taylor never offered this formula as an essays, indicator of killing or even shocking performance for hits on the body. Management. That is an geertz of cultures, American gun pundit extrapolation of thought. Research On Billy. Taylor includes TKO values for the interpretation of cultures essays everything down to the .256 Mannlicher, but not with a view to offering the relative merits of one small-bore or medium-bore against another for general hunting use - its to show how puny these are relative to the big-bores for stopping an elephant. Still, Taylor also made the point that even a stopping rifle was ineffective with poor shooting: Both barrels from a .600 in the belly will have little more apparent effect on [an elephant] than a single shot from a .275 in the same place. ( African Rifles and essay horse, Cartridges , pg. 59)
American hunters and gun writers use terms like stopping power, shock and killing power to geertz the interpretation selected describe how quickly a deer (elk, antelope, etc.) falls when hit. Practically no one hunts elephant anymore and I can't remember the last time I saw an article on that subject. Promotion of the TKO is indicative of the careless way in which any quasi-scientific method is essays seized upon, even though the originator of it may reject that purpose to which it is put (though, again, I am not endorsing or placing validity on Taylor's TKO calculation, even for the interpretation essays the purpose he intended). Incidentally, if there is a knockout effect it will almost certainly be a function of bullet shape, presented area and velocity. Bullet mass will not matter greatly, but a separate calculation would be necessary to assess whether sufficient penetration was provided. John Wooters is another old salt who ought to be listened to reverently.
I love Wooters, even if he is a bit of a curmudgeon (when one has graduated to the plateau of veneration upon which he resides, one can be forgiven for curmudgeonhood). No doubt frustrated with the ceaseless litany of kinetic energy figures, he concocted a formula for and society what he felt was a better measure of a bullet's effectiveness on game. Unlike Taylor's Knockout rating, the Lethality Index (or L-Factor) is intended to the interpretation be a real measure of writing in context, killing effect on thin-skinned game by expanding rifle bullets (Finn Aagaard, The Truth About Stopping Power , Big-Bore Rifles , pp. 8 - 11). The author's formula is described below:
LI = Kinetic Energy (ft-lbs) x Sectional Density x Bullet Diameter (in) To be fair to Wooters, let me assert that indeed, large diameter bullets do make more cavernous and effective wounds than smaller diameters, kinetic energy certainly is a significant component in geertz the interpretation of cultures selected the measure of the wounding, and bullets with a high sectional density tend to penetrate deeper and research, expand with a higher residual weight (all things being equal). The trouble is: all things aren't on equal footing and of cultures essays, quickie formulas that don't even take bullet performance into account cannot be considered meaningful measures of terminal effect. To be meaningful and scientifically sound (ie, correct and true), a formula or theory must be founded on plc asset management carefully collected test data, not gut feelings, prevalent perceptions and anecdotal evidence (which is little better than hearsay). Again, to be fair, this formula is an assessment of the potential of a specific cartridge-load combination and the interpretation, its components are assessed at essay on war horse, the muzzle, but (as I will demonstrate in Part IV) the downrange performance of otherwise identical loads can be very different and sectional density, in particular, is an unreliable indicator of bullet performance. Not to pick on the Lethality Index alone, but I am suspicious of any lethality, killing or stopping formula which just goes up and up without end. What exactly does this mean? Something can only be so dead. Does a value twice as high as another mean that it kills twice as quickly, twice the game weight, two animals standing side by side, or with twice the geertz the interpretation probability? Just what is essay on war horse conveyed by these figures?
Even their creators cannot tell you. After all the computations and three or four significant digits of geertz of cultures, precision, it all comes down to a touchy-feely sort of thing. I fear that this whole fascination for performance indices ultimately arises from the American passion for statistics and our competitive spirit. It is writing sports stats on a different plane. My rifle load is better than your rifle load and I can prove it! As a young person, I was as guilty as anyone of making all sorts of comparative calculations of geertz of cultures, kinetic energy and momentum for writing various cartridge-load combinations. But this is a pretty pointless exercise, too far removed from the geertz of cultures real mechanics of wounding to be of any practical value.
III. B. Thesis Plc Asset. iv. Hornady Index of Terminal Standards (HITS) The most recent attempt to quantify terminal performance in geertz the interpretation essays simple terms has been put forward by Hornady in writing essay the form of an online calculator . Its stated purpose is to assist hunters in geertz essays selecting a bullet and cartridge combination suitable for moderating coursework any hunting situation. After a little experimentation I derived the terms of the calculation, which is given below: HITS = Bullet Weight 2 / Bullet Diameter 2 / 7000 x Impact Velocity / 100. Alternatively, recognizing that some of the of cultures selected terms constitute the sectional density: HITS = Bullet Weight x Sectional Density x Impact Velocity / 100. Having calculated this value, one then compares the score to four categories: 500 or Below -- Small game weighing less than 50 lbs 501 to 900 -- Medium game with a body weight of 50 to 300 lbs (e.g., deer, black bear and in context, caribou) 901 to essays 1500 -- Large and heavy, but non-dangerous game weighing from writing 300 to 2000 lbs (e.g., elk, moose, African plains game, bison, etc) 1501 or Above -- Dangerous game of any weight (including, for geertz example, big cats)
This system bears a strong resemblance to essays on science and society the Optimum Game Weight calculation, but differs in important respects. While, unavoidably, any calculation would lead to splitting hairs and comparisons between cartridges, the HITS system only indicates the general class of game animal suitable for that load. Hornady makes no advertisement that the values correspond to the relative capabilities of the loads in anything more precise than the four general categories. Clearly, higher is deemed to be better, but it does not follow that mathematical proportions between the values can be assumed to indicate how much better. In other words, a HITS of 1500 does not indicate that the load is twice as powerful as a load with a HITS score of geertz of cultures, 750. That's a more reasonable posture than was put forward by the OGW, which claimed to tell you the actual weight, to profile paper the pound, of the optimum game size.
Additionally, unlike some other calculations, the HITS doesn't pretend to tell you how effective a bullet / catridge combination will be; its not a measure of lethality. While I don't endorse any of these quick calculations as rendering some deeper insight into the actual mechanics of terminal ballistics, the HITS methodology does tend to push the user toward solutions which are known to work better: higher sectional density and geertz the interpretation of cultures essays, heavier bullet weight for heavier game. It doesn't include the unfortunate bias of velocity that the OGW creates, nor the bullet diameter bias of the moderating coursework TKO. Geertz The Interpretation Selected. For the most part, its a conservative result. Perusing the tabulated HITS for all the Hornady ammunition, at first nothing leaps out as an obvious case of mathematical mischief. None of the .223 Remington loads is judged to be suitable for medium game, not even the 75 grain loads. None of the 6 mm or .257 caliber loads is writing essay judged to be acceptable for elk and other large game. If anything the scores result in an overly conservative categorization.
Goodness knows how many elk have fallen to the .32 Winchester Special and the interpretation essays, .30-30 Winchester, despite their sub-900 HITS scores. But a little conservatism these days is not necessarily a bad thing. The problem begins with the medium bores, in which all three parameters tend to be high. The .338 Winchester Magnum with a 225 grain bullet is judged suitable for dangerous game, which might be true depending on thesis plc asset the game in mind (think leopards, lions or bears) and the bullet chosen. However, the Hornady Super Shock Tip shown in the table, a rapidly expanding and lightly constructed, boat-tailed bullet, would not be a good choice for any of these game animals. It might even be a fatal choice. Still more egregious is the geertz the interpretation of cultures suggestion that the 250 grain boat-tail hollowpoint load of the .338 Lapua might be a dangerous game load.
Obviously, a match bullet has no place whatsoever in any dangerous game hunting situation. On the other hand, none of the thesis big-bore lever gun loads of the geertz the interpretation essays .405 Winchester, .444 Marlin, .45-70 Government or .450 Marlin are judged minimally acceptable for dangerous game, including the big cats or bears, and these would all be first rate for essay horse that role even if we leave aside the debate over geertz, their utility against heavy, thick-skinned dangerous game. Once beyond medium bores that possess enough velocity to score as dangerous game loads and writing, the lever gun loads lacking enough to qualify, things return to expectation, which is to say that the truly big bores are all judged to be suitable choices for dangerous game. No surprises there. On the whole, unless one has literally no notion of what makes a suitable load for a given hunting application (and, granted, their numbers are legion) I don't really see the utility of this. But then again, maybe I am missing the forest for the trees. The Interpretation Essays. Maybe Hornady is right and basic shooter education trumps technical validity from their vantage point. The worst outcome of this sort of calculation to essays my mind is the impression fostered that the performance of a load is largely or even totally independent of the bullet chosen.
The HITS treats every bullet of equivalent weight and sectional density (i.e., caliber) the same. In reality, the bullet chosen has a far more significant effect on the terminal performance than the velocity. Across a wide velocity spread the wound pattern will be similar for geertz the interpretation selected a given bullet of good design, but the differences between a monolithic solid, a bonded core hunting bullet and a varmint or match bullet of equal weight and caliber would be dramatic. Hornady does speak to the applicability of the bullet to the purpose in general terms, but its clear that their desire to moderating coursework use this new tool and apply it without further elaboration to their current line of ammunition outweighs any concern for misuse of their products. A simple statement in geertz the interpretation of cultures a footnote indicating which loads do not qualify as dangerous game loads (in fact why are match loads even shown here at all?) would suffice, without impugning the validity of what the HITS provides, at least in the mind of the target consumer. III.
B. v. Research Papers The Kid. Bekker Knock-Out Value (KOV) Well, here is what appears at first blush to selected essays be a step forward. Invented by South African pundit Chris Bekker, whose column The View from the Veld appears in the UK-based quarterly webzines Sporting Rifles and Deerstalker , the Knock-Out Value (KOV) formula is based on a simplified (and again, slightly erroneous) terminal momentum calculation: KOV = Terminal Momentum (lb-ft/s) x Sectional Density x Mushroom Factor Terminal Momentum = Impact Velocity (ft/s) x Retained Bullet Weight (lbs) Sectional Density = Original Bullet Weight (lbs) / Bullet Diameter (in) 2.
The author has presented more than one version of this formula in his writings at various times (for instance, dropping the essay Mushroom Factor and using muzzle values for geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays bullet weight and research papers, velocity), but the above is geertz the interpretation selected essays said to be the thesis proper form. Of Cultures Selected. This formula inverts the bias of kinetic energy, effectively giving us mass squared times velocity, and uses a mix of pre-impact and post-impact values. It looks pretty good for all that. After all, we have retained weight, impact velocity, and some accounting for expanded diameter. So what is wrong? Well, for on billy the kid one thing, as with the other shortcut calculations, we are expected to simply accept this formula as the definition of killing power at face value. Of Cultures. Why should it be terminal momentum multiplied by sectional density? Why not kinetic energy multiplied or divided by profile research paper, expanded frontal area, for instance? From where did this insight arise? Where is the physical evidence justifying a Mushroom Factor assessed to three or four significant digits for a plethora of bullet configurations? To paraphrase Jerry MacGuire: Show me the data!
The only evidence that the author offers to support its validity is in the form of comparisons to other popular indices and factors or to kinetic energy alone. No documentation or analysis is provided to the interpretation of cultures selected essays show how these relationships in the KOV were derived. If there were any objective analytical basis for this formula then the author would have presented that data instead of simply making unsubstantiated claims about the correspondance between the KOV and actual field experience. When the support of real world field experience is drawn upon for essays evidence, it is entirely subjective, simply the conventional wisdom, thusly: Everybody knows that the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser would be far superior on the interpretation of cultures essays Cape buffalo than the .300 Remington UltraMag, and moderating, the KOV shows it to geertz of cultures be 28 % better. Whether or not such assumptions are true is debatable; it really depends on the behavior of the bullet, and just how exactly does one judge 28% better performance in writing essay the field? Deeper? Larger hole? Fewer steps until it collapses? Was it actually 32 % better or only 24 % better? See the problem?
In any event, the KOV does not take into consideration the animal to be shot. Geertz The Interpretation Selected Essays. Why then a Cape buffalo for the comparison? Why not a much smaller animal such as a springbok? I seriously doubt if the 9.3 x 62 mm Mauser can be shown to be 28 % better on a springbok. What then can such a measure really tell us? This sort of and society, reasoning does not qualify as scientific argument or evidence. None of this mathematical dexterity demonstrates anything but that one can multiply several numbers together and the interpretation selected, end up with a result that subjectively and essay, qualitatively satisfies one's preconceived notions about how things work - most of which are based on popular notions of terminal ballistics (better known as conventional wisdom and geertz the interpretation essays, frequently incorrect). By a careful (or haphazard) selection of terms and their arrangement, one can make almost any cartridge-load combination seem far superior to essays on science and society others. At best this sort of approach results in a gross generalization that tells us what we already knew: namely that high retained bullet weight is good, as is expanded diameter, that bullets with high sectional density often perform better than those with less, likewise velocity is good, etc.
However, some of these also have a downside. Scientific, analytic methods and measures must be as objective and quantitative as possible. Geertz The Interpretation Of Cultures. Consequently, theories of writing in context, terminal effect must be evaluated in quantitative terms, meaning that dimensions of wounds must be evaluated. None of these formulaic approaches can be defended with a study of the interpretation of cultures, field results, nor have their creators (including Taylor) ever attempted such an analysis. Field experience without measurement and records is next door to useless. It is plc asset no better than armchair opinion or hearsay. Science is not founded on faith in the analytical powers of an individual, it is founded on fact which can be examined and tested by any individual. In his defense (I suppose) Bekker asserts that he has never argued that his method was based on scientific principles.
In constrast with the OGW which never even considered the caliber or the TKO which looked only at nominal caliber, the KOV at least considers the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays expanded diameter; however, the expanded diameter and impact velocity do not occur together in time. The KOV has associated the terminal rest state of the bullet with its velocity an instant before impact. This is research on billy the kid a bit like suggesting that a person can walk away from a head-on collision with a 10-ton cement truck at 100 mph in exactly the essays same state that one steps into management the vehicle as it is sitting in the driveway at of cultures selected essays, home. These two quantities are associated with completely different states. Most the bullet's kinetic energy is expended in getting it into that shape. Thesis Management. A Knock Out Value created by multiplying them together just doesn't mean anything in real terms.
The KOV calculation assumes that the final shape of the bullet is realized instantly and without loss of geertz selected essays, velocity. In actuality, the thesis plc asset management velocity changes instantly with each millimeter of geertz the interpretation, penetration as the bullet gradually expands to its maximum expanded diameter, then assumes its smaller fully deformed diameter that it will hold when the hydrodynamic pressure falls below the effective flow stress of the bullet (at a velocity of roughly 1900 to 2100 fps for most rifle bullets). Though transpiring in a matter of time on the order of a fraction of essay on war horse, a millisecond, this is not an instantaneous process and the interval between impact and the termination of of cultures essays, hydrodynamic deformation in on war horse the bullet dominates the mechanics of the of cultures selected essays penetration event. The following figure illustrates the on war horse point. It shows a series of curves describing the fraction of the kinetic energy at impact which is expended during the hydrodynamic deformation phase (of the bullet) for various retained bullet weights, assuming a hydrodynamic termination velocity of 1900 fps. The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected. It will be quickly observed that, for 3000 fps impacts, between 60% and writing in context, 80% of the kinetic energy at impact is expended by the time the bullet has assumed its final form. Even at impact velocities only slightly above the geertz the interpretation selected essays hydrodynamic termination velocity, the energy of the essays bullet deformation and resultant cavitation amounts to between 10% and 55% of the total kinetic energy. Selected. If we care about retained weight and expanded diameter, we ought to care about the interaction which resulted in research paper those dimensions.
However, even if one knew the termination velocity for deformation in the bullet (which could be anything from 1400 to 2300 fps), any statement about the character of the wound (or the impact velocity) based solely on geertz of cultures selected the final expanded diameter and essays, retained weight would amount to mere speculation. It is the process by which the bullet assumes that final form that dictates the dimensions of the wound. I have tested many bullet designs and there is no obvious correspondance between the appearance of the recovered bullet and the hole it produced during its penetration. Two bullets having the same recovered appearance may create very different wounds based on their impact velocity and design characteristics. A bullet with smaller frontal surface area may make a significantly larger diameter wound than one which has expanded to a perfect classic mushroom. You may not believe that - I wouldn't have believed it a few years ago - but I have proved it with testing (as will be seen in Part IV). In fact, if I may generalize, I have observed that the bullets recovered with the smallest expanded diameters frequently produce the largest cavities (not that they are the geertz of cultures best overall performers). This is why, in my mind at least, both testing and careful observation and measurement of field performance are infinitely more meaningful than homemade formulas based on no physical evidence or pontifications safely removed from the moderating contrary facts. Although he has offered no physical evidence for his theories, Bekker may well have a wealth of hunting and shooting experience. That can be incontravertably said for Pondoro Taylor and John Wooters and essays, others who have attempted to create a mathematical expression consistent with their experience. I do not wish to be perceived as casting doubt on essays on science and society the substantive creditable field experience of geertz the interpretation selected essays, anyone.
Still, these methods do not work. In the final analysis, the KOV is little better (nor any worse) than the TKO, OGW or any of a score of other formulas trying to profile research get at the answer. They all fall short of telling us more than we already knew. I don't wish to be unduly criticizing the KOV or Bekker. These formulas are merely the geertz the interpretation essays manifestations of the biases we have all held as hunters. The KOV looks like it has a little more thought behind it than many such calculations, but precisely for that reason (and as a springboard to writing in context essay elucidate what is really happening during bullet deformation) I have given its features a more studied treatment. What most or all of these shortcut attempts suffer from at the interpretation essays, the very outset is old-fashioned human prejudice - the pre-conceived notion on the part of the profile paper creator concerning what the answer ought to of cultures essays be. Essay. We are all guilty of this. Geertz The Interpretation. Not even the best of us is moderating coursework free from prejudice (which is why objective methods must be adhered to), but if we seek the truth, we must be prepared to be divested of our cherished beliefs, not always see them upheld. Selected. Insistence that the facts must be somehow wrong because my formula holds otherwise, and I have a vast body of hearsay and conjecture supporting me! in the face of on war horse, plain physical evidence is nothing more than denial, an inability to face reality.
Theory must bend to empirical evidence. Geertz The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected. A better understanding will follow. The other great fault of these attempts is rooted in a (perhaps innocent and unwitting) misuse of scientific principles, in the arbitrary combination of physical quantities until a satisfying result is obtained. Mechanics works only in certain prescribed ways, and what we wish to understand is the mechanics that result in a wound of discrete specific dimensions. Pseudoscience doesn't advance our understanding and those of us who know better need to plc asset improve the understanding of those who genuinely seek to know, yet stumble here and there with the details.
At the far extreme of essays, this spectrum is a distrustful perspective of science. Tragically, America seems to place about as much confidence in science as in superstition. That makes a damning statement about the quality of our education efforts, because it wasn't that way 150 years ago. I frequently encounter the attitude on cyber forums that physics and biology cannot really answer our questions about terminal performance, that it all comes down to thesis plc asset some kind of personal thing, like faith, or that it is the interpretation of cultures selected far too complex to ever understand or quantify. That is nonsense. The truth isn't up for grabs, no matter how poor our grasp of it may be. However, even the introduction of more disciplined scientific approaches can have its pitfalls, as the next section will demonstrate. III. C. Bad Science: Misrepresentations of Physics. Anyone who has persevered this far is either with me or else hopelessly confused but doggedly staying in there. For the hopelessly confused I now offer some hope.
Probably I should have included this discussion in writing essay the Mechanics of Terminal Ballistics , but I wanted that discussion to be general and easily accessible. Of necessity, we must now get down to the details. III. The Interpretation Selected Essays. C. i. Relationships of on science, Force, Momentum and Energy. I am appalled by the articles that I see published which evince an ignorance of basic science. Just for my own sanity and geertz the interpretation of cultures essays, peace of mind, lets review a few fundamentals. Mass is an essays on science, intrinsic quantity of of cultures selected essays, matter (as near as we can tell, but lets not get into string theory!) which describes the inertia of an object.
Inertia is the property of an thesis plc asset management, object that resists changes in its motion. Mass and weight are not the the interpretation of cultures essays same thing, but we normally associate the thesis plc asset two. Weight is actually a force exerted on a mass in a gravitational field. Geertz Selected Essays. We live with gravity so we think of mass and weight as being the same thing. It is vital in writing mechanics to recognize that they are distinct.
This distinction was not perceived at first by scientists (understandably) and so the original English system of units is based on the fundamental quantities of force (pounds), length (feet) and time (seconds), rather than more properly on mass (kilograms), length (meters) and time (seconds), as was done in the late 18th century when the of cultures selected essays metric system was developed (yes, its over 200 years old!). Force is actually a derived quantity, not a fundamental quantity, but that's water under the moderating coursework bridge, so lets not brood about geertz selected it. [This conundrum has led to the introduction of pounds-force, lbf, and pounds-mass, lbm, where 1 lbf = 32.174 lbm-ft/s 2 , but this convention has not removed the confusion, only thesis plc asset management resulted in NASA Mars probes falling from the interpretation of cultures selected orbit! Vive le Systeme Internationale!] Velocity is the rate of change in the position of an object with respect to papers on billy the kid time. Here too, we normally use the words speed and velocity interchangeably, but this is incorrect. Speed is the magnitude of the velocity, but velocity is a vector quantity which means that it carries with it an implicit direction of the interpretation of cultures selected, movement.
I throw the term around rather loosely when speaking of terminal ballistics, but its important to recognize that there is more to velocity than mere speed. Because next we get to research paper acceleration. Acceleration is the time rate of change of the interpretation selected, velocity. Note that this is essays on science and society any change in the velocity, either in magnitude or direction. A classic example is the interpretation a mass suspended on a string which is being whirled with constant speed . It is writing in context essay being subjected to a constant acceleration because its velocity direction is geertz selected constantly changing as it turns around its center of papers on billy, rotation. [Deceleration is slang for a negative acceleration and you won't find me using that term (I hope!)]. Obviously then, acceleration is also a vector quantity. Essays. It can be in the direction of motion or against it or in any other direction. Momentum is the physical quantity of a mass moving with a given velocity, or simply mass multiplied by profile research, velocity.
The units in the English system are lb-s, not lb-ft/s as some might suppose (remember, pounds are a unit of force, not mass). Force is the physical quantity describing a mass experiencing a change in velocity, or mass multiplied by acceleration. The Interpretation Of Cultures Essays. Clearly then, the time rate of change in momentum is the same as force. And Society. Forces act on masses and of cultures selected, induce changes in motion and, hence, the essays momentum. More on that in a moment. Sir Isaac Newton is the geertz of cultures selected most important person in the history of mechanics, possibly in the history of all science and mathematics. He not only established the rules of paper, mechanics in terms of its fundamental physical quantities, he also invented the calculus, which is essential for solving the problems of essays, mechanics.
It is useful to understand the moderating difference between a derivative and an integral for geertz the interpretation the following discussion. A differential quantity is an infinitessimally small slice of a whole. A derivative is a rate of change between two differential quantities. It is usually expressed as a symbolic (indefinite) fractional differential quantity, such as dx / dy. Velocity can be expressed as: v = ds / dt, that is, the differential quantity of distance (s) with respect to (divided by) the differential quantity of time (t). Acceleration can be similarly expressed as: a = dv / dt. Since acceleration is the time derivative of velocity and papers, velocity is the time derivative of distance, then it is clear that acceleration is the second time derivative of distance, a = d 2 s / dt 2 . Sometimes we speak of the differential quantities of mass, distance, velocity and acceleration as dm, ds, dv, and da, but it is important to note the the interpretation selected distinction between a differential quantity and a derivative. Not all derivatives are taken with respect to time, for instance. An integral, on the other hand, is the sum of the differential quantities integrated over some boundary. For example, the total distance (s) covered by a bullet can be described using calculus by performing the time integration of the velocity, taking each instantaneous velocity (ds / dt) and multiplying by each differential time quantity dt and coursework, summing at each step.
If this calculation is performed numerically with enough resolution the answer will be very good. Of Cultures Selected Essays. It can be performed analytically for profile research an exact answer if the expression describing ds / dt is known and has an analytical solution (not always the case). Energy is a term that gets abused more than any other scientific term. Crackpots love energy. The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected Essays. Its does not mean power, force, impulse, momentum force, or lifeforce for that matter. Energy is a physical quantity describing the activity state of matter. It occurs (or manifests itself) in many forms. For our purposes, the most significant of these are kinetic energy, work and heat. Thesis Plc Asset. There is also chemical, nuclear, and electromagnetic radiant energy (potential energy is an imaginary concept useful for describing closed systems). Kinetic energy is that attributed to a mass with a given velocity, or KE = (m / 2) v 2 . Work is the energy expended by the interpretation selected essays, a force acting over a distance, W = Integral (F ds). Heat is a form of internal energy which is basically kinetic energy on the scale of atoms.
Heat can be expressed as the mass multiplied by research papers, the specific heat of a material and its absolute temperature, U = mCT. Even though these different energies are calculated using different methods and often expressed in different units (ft-lbs, Joules, BTUs, calories, etc.), they all resolve back to the interpretation selected the same fundamental units of mass x length 2 / time 2 and are totally interchangeable. In other words, energy is not simply some arbitrary term tossed about by scientists that means one thing in one context and something else entirely in another context. Power, in a scientific sense, is the time rate of energy change, transfer or usage, expressed as the essay on war derivative de / dt. If any term gets abused more than energy it would have to be power. Here again, ft-lbs/s, horsepower and selected essays, Watts can all be interchanged with a simple conversion constant. Freshman level physics textbooks are notoriously bad sources for an understanding of ballistics.
I can sympathize with the confusion that many have in this regard. One would like to believe that the college level science class is free from error. Sadly, the coursework late American penchant for making things accessible to the student has led to some regrettable abuses of the truth. Typical example problems describing ballistic events are invariably sprinkled with phrases like, . neglecting air resistance. Geertz Of Cultures Essays. , . Moderating. assuming perfectly elastic (or rigid) bodies. The Interpretation. , and . a collison between perfectly plastic bodies. . Such assumptions are utterly unrealistic and throw away the entire problem in real world exterior and terminal ballistics. One could more sensibly neglect gravity than air resistance! The acceleration due to gravity is essay on war horse only 32.174 ft/s 2 , but the (negative) acceleration due to geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays air resistance is on horse the order of 1700 ft/s 2 or more for high velocity rifle bullets. Geertz Selected. The equations of motion governing ballistic flight of projectiles are a set of coursework, highly complex, coupled second order differential equations that have no analytical solution, so the textbook manufacturers don't want to discuss it. Of Cultures Essays. Its easier to give the student a false impression of reality with a problem that is simply solved. Worse things occur when textbooks attempt to describe terminal ballistics. All real bodies are imperfect, plastic (inelastic) and non-rigid.
Elastic deformation is essays recoverable, meaning the object is not permanently deformed. Essays. Plastic deformation is research permanent. All ballistic events of the interpretation, interest involve large plastic deformations. Essays And Society. Elastic and plastic equate to geertz the interpretation of cultures selected the terminal ballistic terms of temporary cavity and research paper, permanent cavity. Geertz The Interpretation Selected Essays. Rigidity is the completely imaginary property of essay, not deforming, either elastically or plastically, when loaded. There is no such thing as a rigid body, but the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected assumption is often used in textbooks for simplicity when (typically static) loads are small in relation to coursework the strength of an selected essays, object.
It ought to be pretty clear that rigidity is not an assumption that makes much sense in terminal ballistics (unless we are talking about solids, and well constructed ones at that). Furthermore, any degree of penetration implies plastic deformation, which is not described by the most commonly offered relations of elastic mechanical behavior (such as Hooke's Law), and moderating, which involves a significant expenditure of strain energy. Thus, the invention of the concept of perfect plasticity, in geertz of cultures which no energy is expended. Horse. This abomination violates the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and should never even be discussed. Newton's Second Law of geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, Motion, also known as the principle of Conservation of Momentum, states: The time integral of the change in thesis plc asset momentum (or, the impulse) of a system is equal to the time integral of the geertz essays resultant of all applied forces acting on the system, or: I = Integral (F dt). This has been restated in the more familar form that the resultant of all the forces acting on a system is equal to the integral of the mass multiplied by profile research paper, the acceleration, or Integral (F) = Integral (ma). This is the most important expression in all mechanics. Everything builds on this, but it is vital not to be confused about what it means. This is not an algebraic expression, it is an integral expression in vector form. Different rules apply.
Newton's Second Law is essays often violated in textbook sample problems. A classic textbook problem allegedly illustrating the conservation of momentum typically states: A bullet has a mass of 10 g and a velocity of research the kid, 800 m/s. The bullet strikes a block at rest with a mass of 4 kg, and is fully embedded in the block. Assuming that the bodies are perfectly plastic and that the block rests on a frictionless surface, find the final velocity of the the interpretation of cultures selected essays block. [Solution: This is rubbish and does not demonstrate Newton's Second Law. Essays. The effects of geertz, time and force are completely lost! The attempt to make the principle seem real to plc asset management the student results in geertz essays gross unreality. Coursework. Such examples should be confined to billiard balls moving at very low velocity.
But even here we have a problem. The classic freshman physics class demonstration of the principle of conservation of momentum is the the interpretation rack of research papers the kid, billiard balls suspended by wires. The ball on one end is raised and released to strike its neighbor and instantly the far end ball is kicked away! Very cool! Ever wonder though why it is that the balls do not go on clacking forever? They return to rest in geertz the interpretation selected just a few seconds! What they didn't tell you in school is writing essay that there is more to mechanics than conservation of momentum. In fact, the gross way that conservation of momentum is selected essays typically described, as the resultant of research, all the gross mass-velocity interactions, is simply untrue. But Newton didn't express his second law in these terms. Geertz Of Cultures Selected. It is clear in the case of the clacking billiard balls that something steals a piece of momentum with each cycle until the whole system returns to rest. Profile. [In fact, there exists a finite number of balls such that if one is selected essays clacked into its neighbor on plc asset one end there will be no movement by the ball on the other end due to the accumulation of small robberies of energy along the way.] Some have argued that this is entirely due to geertz of cultures the frame or the wires or contact with the Earth, but this is plc asset management simply not true.
The result would be no different if the same experiment were repeated in deep space, far from any gravitational field and the interpretation of cultures essays, not contacting any other body, with a series of hard spheres interconnected by thesis management, springs. Once released, it would be only a matter of seconds before the movement ceased. This is a closed system, from which the energy is not escaping as radiant heat fast enough to the interpretation essays explain why it stops moving (and heat is not a term in Newton's equation anyway - however, this serves to illustrate why energy methods are the only methods of analysis that really prove dependable in some situations). Ah! However, some will say, this is a closed system and its net momentum is moderating coursework zero. Geertz The Interpretation Selected Essays. Indeed, but that misses the point. The momentum of the cycling masses within the system will still degrade to zero and the laws of motion apply to research them as surely as to anything else. Moreover, if you built a device that permitted the momentum of these interconnected masses to selected be transmitted in all directions (due to their interconnections - as is true in essay on war atomic matter) then the linear momentum of an impact would not be preserved for an inelastic event, even in space far from any gravitational influence. Understand what I am saying.
I am not contending that Newton's Second Law is invalid; quite the of cultures essays contrary. What I am saying is that real mechanics is not simplistic. Newton's Law holds that the time integral of the momentum is the integral of the resultant of the forces acting on horse and within a system. I am trying to emphasize that those forces depend on the system; the motion of the the interpretation of cultures balls depends on the microstructural makeup of the balls. If the research papers the kid forces vary with physical properties then the mechanics of motion cannot be assumed to be invariant. That thieving something is the resistive forces in geertz of cultures essays the atomic structure of matter. Its the same something that was expressed in the Third Law of Thermodynamics long after Newton. In Context. All movement encounters resistive forces, such as friction. There are forces akin to friction between the atoms in every body. The Interpretation Essays. There are even resistive forces within the structure of the atoms themselves.
We often think of atoms as being perfect, rigid bodies, but even this assumption is not true. So, the hard fact is, that even on essays and society the most fundamental level the simplistic view of the geertz essays conservation of momentum is not perfectly true. It is almost true for low velocity impacts between elementary particles (certainly not true for relativistic impacts). So Newton was wrong? Absolutely not! Its only that we often do a sloppy job of accounting for all the forces which act on and within a system. Horse. If you neglect any force, then the answer is geertz the interpretation selected wrong.
Maybe its only slightly wrong and you don't care, but in the case of terminal ballistics involving large plastic deformations we simply cannot neglect the complex interactions of the papers on billy the kid materials. Most interesting terminal ballistic events involve hydrodynamic flows and in the interpretation of cultures selected these situations the forces are continuous field functions acting in countless directions. Recall that energy may be expressed as force acting over a distance. One may then say that a certain quantity of energy, say 100 ft-lbs, is equivalent to raising 100 lbs up against gravity a distance of one foot. Here we see the difference between pure science and engineering. Science can easily give you an answer that is technically correct as far as it goes, but utterly useless and untruthful. In the real world, the example I just gave is true only if the and society weight is of cultures selected essays raised at quasi-static velocity, barely moving. It matters how fast you do something.
Fast work wastes energy. There is less efficiency and effectiveness in the work and in context essay, more entropy is expended. Engineering is the the interpretation selected essays business of looking at the real world complexities of mechanical (and other) systems using the principles of science. We often state that mass is in context conserved (none is lost) and that energy also is conserved. Mass and energy must be accounted for to preserve the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected whole truth of mechanics. For ballistic events, kinetic energy is research papers on billy converted to strain energy (causing both elastic and plastic deformation) and this energy is finally converted into thermal internal energy when the body assumes a rest state. All elastic and of cultures essays, plastic cavity expansions result in some non-recoverable energy loss to entropy as well. This last fact of reality makes the dumbed down principle of the and society conservation of momentum an unrealizable ideal. However, we may still make good use of the expression developed by selected, Newton. As an aside, the most dramatic demonstration of on science and society, this elastic energy dissipation that I have seen was on geertz of cultures essays a late night infomercial for some high tech golf clubs. Essays. The heads were made from a metallic glass that is composed of zirconium with a half dozen other metals mixed in to fully occupy all the spaces in the crystal lattice.
Imagine a box spring structure but with rigid braces placed all around the springs so that they can't flex anymore. A golfball was dropped in a tube onto a plate of this material at the same instant as other balls were dropped onto plates of stainless steel and titanium alloy. The motion damped out in geertz of cultures essays about 10 seconds for the steel, maybe 15 or 20 for the titanium, but the golf ball bounced on that metallic glass for profile over two minutes! A worse case of the bullet striking the block example was brought to my attention some time back, in which the conservation of momentum was again reduced to mass times velocity resultants, but the problem then went on to compare the initial kinetic energy of the bullet to the final kinetic energy of the moving block and concluded by stating that the difference in geertz essays these energies was absorbed by deformation and resistive forces. I say this is worse because it is almost correct and sounds correct, but isn't. You don't start with the paper idea that gross body motions must be preserved and of cultures essays, then declare any discrepancies in energy to research papers on billy the kid be resistive losses.
This is particularly important where hydrodynamic behavior dominates the problem. The correct solution is to geertz essays treat the interaction at a scale of resolution appropriate to the deformation, perform basic calculations of the fundamental equations of motion and visco-plastic deformation while numerically integrating, account for the energy explicitly at each step, and then describe the coursework gross body motions. Doing this manually is out of the question, which is why the defense sector uses high powered computer workstations and finite element or finite difference methods. The reason why a simplistic assumption of preserving gross body motion does not work can be shown rather easily. If we describe an impact between two perfectly rigid bodies, m and M, the geertz the interpretation of cultures essays larger one of which is moderating coursework initially at rest, we may express the force exerted by of cultures selected essays, the smaller mass on the larger at impact as: F = m d 2 s / dt 2 , and the writing force exerted by the larger mass on of cultures the impacting mass as: F = M d 2 s / dt 2. (Note: the forces are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and the accelerations are not the same). However, we are interested in profile research paper penetration, so we ought (at the geertz the interpretation very least) to model the impact as a spring-mass system to indicate some elastic deformation. Let's concentrate on the larger mass (the target), recognizing that what applies to the target also applies in writing in context its own way to the projectile.
According to Hooke's Law the force applied to a spring in elastic deformation is equal to the spring constant multiplied by the deformation distance. For a spring-mass system, the total force exerted by and on the projectile is given by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + K s. Observe that already the acceleration on the mass is of cultures essays reduced by the quantity Ks / M. The energy absorbed by the spring is described by: E = Integral (F ds) = ( K s 2 ) / 2 (assuming a linear spring behavior). Coursework. This is geertz the interpretation why we put suspension systems on dynamic systems (like automobiles). If the research the kid acceleration on the mass is less, it doesn't move as far or as fast. Geertz Of Cultures. Its that simple. In other words, the force varies with the research paper internal mechanics of the bodies. Newton isn't violated.
I have said that this perfectly elastic view of mechanics is selected unrealistic because of the resistive forces in real matter. So, lets add some nonrecoverable energy losses. Real dynamic systems include damping, usually represented in moderating simple models by a dashpot, which is selected a mechanism that uses fluid viscosity to resist movement (this is the same mechanism used by those mercury recoil reducers). The viscous fluid offers resistance in proportion to writing the velocity of the motion. Geertz Of Cultures Selected Essays. In consequence, the total force is research paper expressed by: F = M d 2 s / dt 2 + D ds / dt + K s. The energy dissipated by the damper is given by: E = Integral (F ds) = Integral ( D v ds ). The acceleration is reduced by: ( Ks + Dv ) / M. Geertz. Since in profile research each case the input is identical, we must conclude that the acceleration on the mass in geertz selected essays the case of the thesis plc asset viscous damped spring-mass system is less than the acceleration experienced by the rigid mass. In ballistic events a portion of the damping is governed by a velocity squared function.
Therefore, neglecting the damping and elastic dissipation of energy results in an overestimate of imparted motion. The May/June 2002 issue of Petersen's Rifle Shooter has an geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, article entitled, Where Do the Foot-Pounds Go? - Relating Kinetic Energy to Hunting Cartridge Effectiveness , which is much improved over the pseudoscience of four years before, and even begins to address the paper conversion of kinetic and strain energy into residual internal energy; however, it introduces one misunderstanding worth clearing up. Geertz Selected. The article states that high velocity small bore bullets penetrate steel plates like truck leaf springs by melting the steel. This sort of mythology is prevalent in in context my field and seems plausible, but even shaped charge jets moving at 9000 m/s (29,500 fps) do not melt the steel armor plates that they penetrate, nor is the soft pure copper jet melted (this is geertz the interpretation of cultures not conjecture, it has been demonstrated). A shaped charge jet penetrates strictly using its velocity and density. The dynamic pressure vastly exceeds the strength of the steel and the penetration velocity exceeds the sound speed, so the writing in context steel effectively has no strength at all.
Most bullets do not penetrate so fast through steel targets that hydrodynamic flow conditions exist, but the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected force per paper, unit area still governs the behavior. I have shot slabs of 6061-T6 aluminum with a variety of small arms ranging from the 5.56 x 45 mm M193 and M855 (SS109 type) bullets up to the .458 Win Mag using a 500 gr Hornady steel jacketed solid ( this is extremely dangerous - do not attempt it! ). At no stage in any of these penetration tests did melting occur, either in the target or in the bullets (aluminum, copper and lead have much lower melting points than steel). The bullets were recovered and exhibited mechanical strain, which would not be evident if they had melted. The target exhibited similar behavior. Any bullet capable of melting steel would leave scorch marks through tissue. When was the last time you saw that? The author theorizes that the steam generated by essays, all this heat transfer causes the violent cavitation during a bullet's passage through tissue. Plc Asset Management. One need not guess at it. We know that dynamic pressure is responsible for cavitation in hydrodynamic penetration. Bullets actually deliver very little energy: 2000 ft-lbs is the interpretation selected essays 2700 J or just enough energy to on billy the kid light a 100 W bulb for 27 seconds.
I don't fault the author of geertz the interpretation, that article for the mistake, as even sources that ought to be authoritative in research the defense field make similar errors with regard to penetration mechanics (I still regularly see references to geertz the interpretation selected shaped charges producing plasma jets, and and society, that sort of misinformation). Real world penetration is best described as a fluid mechanics problem. For inviscid hydrodynamic flow, the dynamic pressure is (according to Bernoulli's Law) proportional to the fluid density and the square of the velocity: P = ( rho / 2 ) v 2 . The force exerted on the bullet at the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure multiplied by geertz the interpretation of cultures selected, the presented area of the projectile in the direction of the flow, F = P A. Paper. The first thing that this tells you is that the mass of the bullet has no direct bearing on the diameter of the cavity created - rather, that is governed by shape and velocity. The Interpretation Of Cultures. The kinetic energy expended during penetration is given by moderating, the force exerted over the distance of of cultures selected, travel by the bullet, or: E = F ds. So, the differential penetration depth, ds, is simply the kinetic energy divided by the force acting on on science and society the projectile, ds = E / F. Penetration depth then clearly does depend on bullet mass (a component of kinetic energy). This expression could be integrated very easily (and conveniently) in terms of the interpretation of cultures essays, velocity. Unfortunately, for all the reasons laid out in this discussion the above is still too simplistic. Living tissue is not a Newtonian fluid. It is solid, with fluid characteristics in high velocity impact events. Essay On War Horse. It obeys non-linear behavior laws. It is viscous and exhibits second-order damping effects, as well as compressibility and elasticity (fluids are inelastic and, notwithstanding popular mythology to geertz selected essays the contrary, all fluids are compressible), so calculations of the permanent cavity created by the bullet will be complex.
We need a velocity dependent drag function and a constitutive relation governing the strength, elasticity, compressibility and failure mechanisms of the target material(s). So, where do we go from here? Can we have an objective assessment of the effectiveness of our weapons? I think the on war horse answer is in the affirmative and hopefully the next two sections will begin to give some hint as to that understanding.
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The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays by Clifford Geertz - MIT
50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. Geertz. It can make or break job applications, open doors to on war horse, new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out of cultures selected, your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of essay yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to the interpretation essays, your best advantage.
Just like how you dress your best for an interview, it’s important to give your resume the same treatment — to make sure it’s polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of styles, from strictly businesslike to ultra creative — browse through them to essay, get some ideas for updating your own resume. Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays beautiful resume templates. Click the thesis management image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable. You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. The Interpretation Essays. This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space.
But Mikha Makhoul’s resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesn’t sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally — giving it a 3D appearance and creating the illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to symbolize his creative side and red to essay on war horse, symbolize his analytic side. Geertz Selected. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and moderating, his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look. The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected Essays. Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and moderating coursework, plenty of negative space.
There seems to be a trend, at the interpretation selected least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to in context essay, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that there’s a human behind the the interpretation of cultures selected essays piece of paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his “Hello, nice to meet you. Here’s a little about me” header at the top of on billy the kid this resume, may help you create rapport with the geertz person who’s reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyle’s name and moderating coursework, a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of geertz the interpretation essays fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is something you can use over and over moderating again — on the interpretation of cultures selected letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on research a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected Essays. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and on war, whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and selected essays, past positions).
Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Carter, printed on research a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the resume a custom, hand-printed feel.
When applying for a position where a more creative approach isn’t appropriate, it’s always a safe bet to geertz the interpretation of cultures, opt for coursework, a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and a small personal portrait. If you’re after a job in the interpretation of cultures selected essays, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and a personal logo. Plc Asset Management. Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and geertz, they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at a glance, tell something about moderating coursework, you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into the interpretation, your resume. It doesn’t have to thesis plc asset, be the center of the interpretation of cultures selected attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in on billy, Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes?
Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is readable. You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it.
Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on of cultures selected essays his resume. Give the thesis plc asset hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the selected essays whole character of your resume. For instance, the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on in context essay the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.
You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and make it easy to geertz, navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If you’re going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned.
Use a sidebar in your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to essays, separate her personal and contact information from geertz the interpretation selected, her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is writing text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, experience. Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiau’s proficiency in various areas, such as management and design. Essay On War Horse. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience — a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the of cultures person looking at your resume an excuse to find out more about moderating coursework, you. Including a link to your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for the interpretation of cultures selected essays, big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on research your resume.
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This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an in context, accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to geertz the interpretation selected essays, tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an profile research, accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and simple, showing that resumes don’t have to be fancy to the interpretation of cultures essays, make a good impression. If competition is stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd.
This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch. As if to say that a normal paper resume just won’t cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when it’s ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the research papers pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and the interpretation selected essays, more creative resumes.
The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. Management. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Sometimes you have to selected essays, do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Thesis Plc Asset Management. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to make sure Joao Andrade’s resume gets looked at.
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Free Essays on Covalent Bonding Essay. April 30 2009 ------------------------------------------------- Essay on Water Published by admin at 3:58 am under Example Essays Introduction Water is an essential ingredient for geertz the interpretation of cultures essays the existence of in context essay life as we know it. Biochemical processes occur in aqueous environments, many of which use water. Intermolecular Bonding Essay Write an essay on intermolecular bonding . Explain how each type of bond arises and the evidence for the existence of each. Comment on their strengths in relation to geertz essays the types of atoms involved; the covalent bond and relative to each other. Use the concepts of different. Covalent Bonding In a covalent bond, a pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. Each of the essays, positively charged nuclei is geertz the interpretation selected essays attracted to the same negatively charged pair of electrons. The diagram: A and writing in context B are held together by this shared attraction. Covalent bonds are often drawn as dots.
Intermolecular forces- describing the geertz of cultures essays, three types of bonding, giving examples, and profile paper intermolecular forces. Adrian Castaneda 11/22/08 Types of geertz of cultures selected essays Bonding Essay There are three types of bonds that may occur when bonding elements. They are: ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds. The whole objective of element bonding is to achieve stability or noble-gas form from each element. Papers On Billy The Kid? In order to do so, each. main distinction between ionic and covalent bonding ? Answer (A): Ionic bonding involves the geertz selected essays, electrical attraction between large numbers of anions and cations. Covalent bonding involves the research paper, sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. Of Cultures Selected Essays? Translation: -Ionic bonding happens between a metal and a non-metal. Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons, by essay on war horse two atoms, in order to geertz of cultures essays produce a mutual attraction. The atoms tend to share electrons, so as to on war fill their outer electron shells.
Such bonds are always stronger than the intermolecular. BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 100% Correct Answers. c) Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups d) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds e) All of the the interpretation of cultures selected, above are features of DNA 1. 15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene. With the knowledge of chemical bonding and its importance, let us see in detail the various types of chemical bonds.
The two main varieties of on science and society chemical bonds include the ionic bond and the covalent bond. The third variety named as co-ordinate bond has properties that are intermediate to of cultures selected that of ionic. The Use of coursework Complex Numbers in Real Life. other semiconductor devices, as well as magnetism, which has applications to magnetic disk drives and other storage devices), and chemistry (the covalent bonding between atoms). References  Internet. research is exploratory and focuses on the impact of cellular phones on the communication of the world. The thesis statement which best suits this essay is: “How have cellular phones shaped the communication of the world?” Aims and Objectives To observe the effect of cellular technology on of cultures essays, communication. name to clarify or use latin name if available iii) 6) Molecule = With Non-metals! a) Molecule = compound between two non-metals i) Joined by Covalent Bonds = which mean that elements share electrons instead of exchanging them 7) Binary Molecular Compounds a) Different than ionic compounds because. COVALENT BONDING 1. Definition: a chemical bond formed by essays the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons (with paired spins) between two or more non-metals atoms. Covalent bonds are typically formed between two or more non-metals in molecules and of cultures selected essays giant covalent structures. The strength of the.
The time I experienced a failure and overcame it. equation. 9. Compare the strength of ionic bonds, covalent bonds and intermolecular forces. Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.(strong) covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron. *cation* or positive; the one that *accepts* is the *anion* or negative. Writing In Context? Covalent Bonds *In covalent bonds*, atoms SHARE electrons in order to geertz the interpretation essays fill their outer shell; they do not give up or accept them. Research Paper? *Many atoms form covalent bonds, including oxygen (O=O or O2*), and hydrogen (H-H or H*2*), as well. II: CHEMICAL BONDING WORKSHEET Use your textbook as a reference to answer the following questions. Part A: General Information on geertz of cultures, Chemical Bonding 1. Diagram an atom showing the charge and location of the subatomic particles. 2. What is chemical bonding ? What subatomic. chain, branch or side chain and cross-linked chain. Linear chain polymers are characterised by having smaller monomers join end to end with strong covalent bonds to writing in context form a long chain, with each monomer being similar to a link along a chain (Preston, unknown).
Some linear chain polymers have branches or. Compare and contrast the structure and bonding in Ionic, Covalent and Metallic species. the structure and bonding in Ionic, Covalent and Metallic species. Relate the structure and bonding to the properties of the species. Ionic bonding is usually formed between a metal and a non-metal, Covalent between two non-metals and Metallic between two metals. Geertz Of Cultures Essays? Ionic Bonding ; Ionic bonds tend. the noble gases not enter into chemical bonds?
Because they have a full valance ring From Packet Section 1.2 What is an thesis plc asset ionic bond? Bonding that involved the transfer of electrons What is an ion? Charged atom What is the interpretation essays a positive ion called? cation What is a negative ion called. BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 – 100% Correct Answers. c) Complimentary strands are held together by on billy the kid hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups d) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by geertz the interpretation essays covalent bonds e) All of the above are features of DNA 1. 15.
A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the profile research, gene. could be formed from 0.300 mol of the interpretation of cultures essays PbO.  [Total: 7] 3. (a) Showing outer electron shells only, draw ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams to show the bonding in on science and society ammonia and water. ammonia water  (b) Draw diagrams to the interpretation of cultures essays illustrate the shape of a molecule of each of these compounds. State the size. Physics 215 Winter 2002 Introduction to Modern Physics Prof. Ioan Kosztin Lecture #23 Solid State Physics • Bonding in solids (metals, isolators, semiconductors) • Classical free electron theory of metals • Quantum theory of metals • Band theory of solids • Semiconductors • Lasers Classification.
Account for the Different Physical Properties and Uses of Diamond, Graphite and on war the Fullerene You Have Chosen, in Terms of Bonding. Diamond is the interpretation of cultures selected essays a giant covalent network structure, having each Carbon atom sharing electrons with four other Carbon atoms, therefore having four single covalent bonds formed. Writing In Context? These Carbon covalent bonds are extremely strong and the interpretation selected account for on war horse two of diamond’s most prominent physical properties among all elements. How Has Bowlby's Attachment Theory Been Modified by the Findings of Later Research? How Have Theories About Attachment Affected Ideas About Childcare? important questions about essays, what circumstances could affect the mother-child bond, and the effects on the child of essay on war horse different kinds of separation. This essay looks in particular at Bowlby’s work on maternal deprivation, and at how early research and the later work of Mary Ainsworth seem to support Bowlby’s. The Role of H-Bonding in Living Organisms.
Discuss the Role of Hydrogen Bonding in living Organisms A hydrogen bond is an intermolecular bond and is formed when a charged part of a molecule having polar covalent bonds, forms an electrostatic attraction with a molecule of opposite charge, generally with fluorine, oxygen and nitrogen. Molecules. Dipole-dipole forces -- Polar molecules, when properly oriented, will attract each other as a result of this. Stronger than van der Waal's forces. Hydrogen bonding -- When hydrogen is bonded to geertz of cultures selected nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine, a very strong dipole is formed, making the thesis, hydrogen very strongly positive. This hydrogen. Bonding Ionic, Metallic and Covalent . By Bruno Dimitroff 4G Ionic ? Ionic Bonding is completed between a metal and geertz essays a non-metal. ? The metal part of the bond loses electrons in order to accomplish a full outer shell and the non-metal gains an electron for a full outer shell. ? This is thesis management done to attain. HYDROGEN BONDING : Hydrogen bonding is a bonding type consisting of dipole and dispersion forces.
A hydrogen bond is the attractive force between a hydrogen atom attached to a molecule and an atom of a different molecule. According to the Pauling scale of electro-negativities of the elements, it can. ?Madalyn Charnego Title: What’s in that Bottle? Objective: To determine the type of bonding in unlabeled chemicals using physical and chemical properties of substances containing iconic, molecular (polar and nonpolar covalent ) and the interpretation of cultures selected essays metallic bonds. Approach: Materials: Potential unknown solids: Ammonium. Anatomy Physiology Short Answer Essays. ? ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY SHORT ANSWER ESSAY Answers of Chapter 2 – Basic Chemistry 1.Because your entire body is made up of chemicals and chemical reactions underlie all body processes.
A person needs this background to understand body functions. 2.Matter is anything that occupies space. compounds) • Nucleic Acid : chain like molecules called polymers • Polymer: • long molecule consisting of similar identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds • repeating units of polymer = monomer • Enzymes: • facilitate making and break down of polymers • specialized macromolecules which speed. Symmetry, molecular orbitals and spectroscopy in transition metal compounds. well known for their colours, which are associated with electronic transitions between d orbitals. • The split in d-orbital energy results from bonding . In an octahedral complex the energy gap between highest occupied (t2g) and lowest empty d orbital (eg) is symbolised by ?o. In tetrahedral. to the Bachelors Degree. There will be no practical examination in any of the on billy the kid, subjects. General English Candidates will be required to write an geertz selected essays essay in English. Writing In Context? Other questions will be designed to test their understanding of English and workmanlike use of words. Geertz The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected? Passages will usually be set for.
Types of Intermolecular Force in Some Drugs. Chapter |1| which is formed when two atoms share their electrons. Covalent bonds vary in strength and properties according to the elements involved in the bond. One method of classifying the elements, which join together to form bonds, is according to their electronegativity. The electronegativity. ?Chapter 6: Chemical Bonds Section 6.1: Ionic Bonding Chemical bond: the force that holds atoms of elements and on war ions together to become a stable, new substance called a compound. -the number of valence electrons determines if an atom will form a chemical bond. -metals tend to give up electrons. TEST 1 Q5. [Apr 2014] [Ans: 265.38 g] Q6. [Sept 2013] [Ans: 1.346 ? 1025 atoms] Q7. [Sept 2014] [Ans: C3H4O3] CHAPTER 2 – CHEMICAL BONDING Q1. [Sept 2014] I Ans: F.C. = 0 I N I Q2. Geertz? [Apr 2014] Ans: O N O F.C. = +1 REVISION EXERCISE FOR TEST 1 Q3. . positively charged nucleus is on billy the kid surrounded by a cloud of rapidly moving, negatively charged electrons. * Atoms become stable by bonding to geertz of cultures selected other atoms through covalent or ionic bonds. * Components of mixtures retain their properties—components of solutions do not Vocabulary Acid: Any substance. Different Types of research papers on billy the kid Chemical Bonding. Compare and contrast the structure and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays bonding in ionic, covalent and metallic species. Relate the structure and bonding to research papers on billy the kid the properties of the species. Ionic, covalent and metallic bonding are all various types of bonding found between atoms, but there are big differences between how they work, and.
to the IB’s mission to create a better and geertz the interpretation selected more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect. The extended essay , including the essays, world studies extended essay , offers the the interpretation of cultures essays, opportunity for research paper IB students to investigate a topic of special interest, in the form of a 4,000-word piece of the interpretation of cultures independent. Metallic bonding is the electromagnetic interaction between delocalized electrons, called conduction electrons, gathered in an electron sea, and the metallic nuclei within metals. Understood as the paper, sharing of free electrons among a lattice of geertz the interpretation essays positively charged ions (cations), metallic bonding is moderating sometimes. Chemistry Title page which is due on the interpretation, Monday Sept 22nd. On Billy? There will be a quiz on the interpretation selected essays, Tuesday Sept 23rd. Sept 15 Bingo! Tell me about writing in context, Oxyacids. Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Note on section 5.11 (+ WS).
HW Do questions page 198 # 3, 4 + Time to work on page 204 # 4, 5, 6 + WS Molecular Compounds. meaning of the terms primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure of proteins, and describe the types of bonding which hold the molecules in shape. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Learning Outcomes • Describe. 3 06 Covalent And Ionic Properties Lab Worksheet. compound usually has higher melting points, ionic compounds or covalent compounds? What is the reason for the interpretation of cultures selected essays this difference in research the kid melting points? (3 points) Ionic compounds usually have higher melting points.
This is because the atoms of covalent compounds are bound strongly to selected essays each other in stable molecules. Compare and Contrast Different Views of Globalisation. out a series of debate over on billy its effects. A common way to examine the issue would be discussing whether these effects are favorable or pernicious. The essay will study the similarities as well the differences of these two perspectives. Geertz The Interpretation Of Cultures Selected? While they are largely different in stating that globalisation’s role. BIO 103 Final Exam Guide Version 2 100% Correct Answers. c) Complimentary strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between phosphate groups d) Nucleotides within a single strand are connected by covalent bonds e) All of the above are features of DNA 1. Papers The Kid? 15. A man who carries a harmful sex-linked gene on his X chromosome, will pass the gene.
in definite orbitals around the nucleus. Their Model Explains the role of valence electrons in bonding , the number of valence electrons to the Periods of a periodic table, explains ionic and geertz the interpretation covalent bonding , and how an atom places electrons in different energy levels. In 1932 James Chadwick who was. H (from amine group) combines with OH (from carboxyl group); 4 condensation reaction OR water, lost / eliminated / produced / created / AW; 5 covalent ; 3 max (b) 1 some R groups, attract / repel; 2 disulfide, bridges / bond; 3 between, cysteine / SH / S (atoms); 4 hydrogen / H, bonds; DO. Essay #1: “Chemical bonds are essential to building the molecules of life. a. In 3 paragraphs, describe the profile paper, following bond types and how they are significant to life on earth: ionic, covalent (polar and non-polar), hydrogen, and Van der Wahls (interactions). b. How is energy transferred between. nearby electronegative atoms. They are important to life because some of them hold protein structures together.
DNA helix is held together by hydrogen bonding , and it is an important property to geertz of cultures selected water it makes up a water molecule. 11) Cohesion: similar molecules stick together. On Science? It allows water to be pulled. Revsision Questions for the interpretation of cultures How Much Topic. make germanium tetrachloride. This is a volatile liquid in moderating which the germanium and of cultures essays chlorine atoms are joined by moderating covalent bonds.
STEP 2 The germanium tetrachloride is distilled off from the mixture. STEP 3 The germanium tetrachloride. Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Bonding between atoms and molecules • Ionic bonds formed when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. Geertz The Interpretation? • Covalent bonds Sharing electrons: polar or nonpolar Bonding between atoms and molecules • Hydrogen bonds Bonding between atoms and molecules . Metals, Minerals Gemstones: Types of bonding and their properties. Atoms with unstable electron configurations try to horse achieve a stable configuration by bonding with other atoms. Atoms bond in three ways: 1. Accepting or donating electrons to geertz of cultures selected form charged particles which are attracted to each other.
2. Sharing electrons with atoms of two or more atoms 3. Forming lattices. November 12, 2012 Running Title: Syndrome Page 1 This essay will cover what Stockholm Syndrome is; tell who is most likely to develop the disorder in reference to age, gender, social class, and ethnicity. This essay will briefly summarize the essay horse, risk factors associated with this disorder. energy is contained in the bonds of which it forms, because chemical energy is the energy held in the covalent bonds between atoms in a molecule. Every bond has a certain amount of energy. Covalent bonds are formed when the electron molecule clouds of two bonds of the selected, same atoms overlap. Where the clouds.
The active site can also change shape. Papers? Covalent bonding – enzymes are covalently bonded to particles, these bonds are stronger so leakage is less common, however the the interpretation of cultures selected essays, covalent bonds can alter the in context essay, active site shape, reducing the rate of reaction. The covalent bonds can also occupy the active site shape. ? The purpose of this essay is to reflect on the three day trip to Taramacouta camp and to of cultures selected essays identify a personal capability I have discovered in papers on billy the kid myself during the geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays, SOS course , to describe my vision of the research papers on billy, meaning of success , at the college level. What are my biggest strength and weakness.
between Ionic and Covalent bonds: Ionic Covalent Transfer of Valence Electrons Sharing of Valence Electrons Bond between Metal and the interpretation essays Non-Metal Bond between Non-Metals Stronger than Covalent Bond Weaker To sum it all up, the key words when talking about Ionic and Covalent bonding are transfer and. ?Types of bonding The different forms of bonding considered here are: metallic pure covalent polar covalent ionic Metallic bonding Metallic bonding is the essays on science and society, type of bonding found in metallic elements. This is the electrostatic force of attraction between positively charged ions and geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays delocalised outer electrons. lyophilized state. Other than proteins, elemental components of the cement were found to plc asset be participating in the cohesion of cement through both covalent and ionic bonding . Future Discussions One similarity among all underwater adhesives is their hydrophobic properties despite their adhesion to both. covers all but approximately 30% of the Earth’s surface, and can be found naturally in all three states of of cultures selected essays matter: liquid, solid and profile research gas. Water is of cultures a covalent bond known most commonly by its empirical form; H2O. It can also be identified by and society the Lewis Dot Structural form shown in the figure in the upper right.
ideal gas equation (PV = nRT). (iii) The relationship between vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass. 4. Geertz The Interpretation? Atomic structure and plc asset management bonding (a) (i)The concept of geertz the interpretation of cultures selected essays atoms, molecules and ions, the profile research, works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford, Moseley, Thompson and Bohr. (ii) Atomic structure.