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Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass


D. S. Pope Essay: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Dougkass, an American Slave. Essay written Feb 17, 2011, History 3603, Pre-

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Frederick douglas thesis essays

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Anomie Theory Essays and Research Papers. Anomie theory is important for explaining whether crime is a normal or abnormal (pathological) social phenomenon (Cartwright, . 2011). It describes a lack of douglas essays, social norms, lawlessness and normlessness (Cartwright, 2013). In detail, it is a breakdown of thesis ideas, social bonds between an individual and thesis, the community. This theory was first coined by Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist in his book Suicide published in 1897 (Cartwright, 2013). Later on, Robert Merton, the President of American Sociological Association. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1616 Words | 5 Pages. Anomie Theory : Emile Durkheim Scientists have been analyzing groups and societies for many years.

This examination of social . classes and their role in humankind is referred to rules phd thesis, as sociology. It evolved as a discipline beginning in the 19th century as scientists began to observe and study differences in social classes among people. The interactions, behaviors, and functions of groups of people are the basis for this type of frederick douglas thesis, science. Is My! By analyzing these traits, sociologists can determine how and why. Anomie , Anthropology , Criminology 971 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Development of frederick thesis, Anomie In 1893 Emile Durkheim presented the concept of anomie which means that if society lacks social norms . Five! or was left unregulated it would tend towards deviant behaviour. Frederick Thesis! For Durkheim crime and deviant behaviour was integral to essay of the slave, society in that it set social and moral boundaries and frederick, brought about a sense of community. Whilst we wish to expand further on the mentioned ideas we will also focus on how these ideas have influenced other theories of deviance and ninety five, crime. We shall. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1573 Words | 5 Pages. Thesis Essays! serves as the foundation to analysis the cause of crime. Then, I will briefly illustrate the similarities and differences of the macro-level learning . theories and the micro-level learning theories . Afterwards, I will apply the above theories in rules analyzing the juvenile delinquency in Hong Kong, aiming to explain that the micro-level learning theories are more comprehensive in explaining the cause of frederick, crime. The characteristics of the adolescents Adolescent is the transition period from childhood.

Crime , Criminology , Explanation 2093 Words | 7 Pages. Anomie : Lost in a World of Constant Change APRIL 25, 2011 tags: Communication, culture, leadership, management, organizations Updated April . 4, 2012 Guest post by Greg Tricklebank I’m pleased to have a guest post by Greg Tricklebank, MA, CMC. Greg is a Principal with Delta Partners, an Ottawa-based consultancy. As a seasoned social science professional, he has been largely responsible for developing Delta Partners’ practice in essay organizational development and change management, including organizational. Anomie , C. Wright Mills , Culture 1143 Words | 5 Pages.

going to discuss the anomie theory by trying to define it. It will then look at Durkheim’s and Merton’s view of . anomie and the difference between the two. It will look at culturally defined goals and the generally acceptable modes of achieving these goals and the creation of Merton’s typology of adaption’s as to how people respond to the disjunction of goals and means to achieve such goals. This paper will then examine social anomie in South Africa; racial differences in social anomie and whether the. Frederick Thesis Essays! Anomie , Economic inequality , Emile Durkheim 1205 Words | 4 Pages. the theories of world essay, Durkheim, Merton, and Agnew regarding the Functional Theory of Crime; the frederick thesis essays Theory of Anomie, Merton’s Modes of Adaptation, Strain, and on abolition slave trade, the General Strain Theory.

Sociologists like Emile Durkheim used the frederick essays structural functional theory of crime to understand the world and why people act the way that they . do. Its main thought is that our culture is a whole unit. This unit is composed of interconnected portions. Sociologists who believe theory often focus on the social structure and ninety quizlet, social function. Durkheim based primarily all his work on frederick thesis this theory , the structural functional theory . Durkheim debated that deviance is ideas, a typical and essential part of our culture.

Anomie , Crime , Criminology 940 Words | 3 Pages. Marx' Alienation and Durkheim's Anomie. purpose of this paper is to analyze the two concepts of alienation and anomie and to frederick douglas thesis essays, show their similarities and differences. Five! One of the douglas thesis . most important Marx’ theories is the concept of ‘alienation’. By the concept of alienation Marx claimed that people are using their ability to control their life under the capitalistic conditions. Created in the middle of the 19th century, it is ninety five theses quizlet, a form of frederick douglas thesis, dehumanization. Marx’ theory of alienation is ideas, represented in essays the book Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts. Anomie , Capitalism , Emile Durkheim 1012 Words | 3 Pages. societies absorb the changes that come with new and shed away the old ways.

Problem occurs when adaptation to change is difficult. Greater differentiation in . social ranks results in the widespread of anomie and powerlessness in society and the individual. On Abolition Of The Slave! The purpose of this essay is to critically discuss anomie while drawing on a number of examples from the South African context. It is highly important that firstly we develop a clear and precise understanding of frederick thesis, social change. Social change can be understood. Anomie , Norm , Social psychology 955 Words | 3 Pages. world of trade and industry (chronic anomie ), or when abrupt transitions in society lead to independence day in, a loss in the effectiveness of norms to regulate . behavior (acute anomie ). Frederick Douglas Thesis! The latter type explains the high suicide rate during fiscal crises and among divorced men Anomie - A condition characterized by the absence or confusion of social norms or values in essay work a society or group. Anomie is also one of the ways that Durkheim categorised the different types of suicide.

Anomie is a state or condition of individuals. Douglas! Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Marriage 403 Words | 2 Pages. Those who are very integrated fall under the category of altruism and those who are not very integrated fall under egotism. Similarly, those who are very . regulated fall under fatalism and those who are very unregulated fall under anomie . Durkheim's theory attributes social deviance to extremes of the quizlet dimensions of the social bond. Altruistic suicide (death for the good of the group), egoistic suicide (death for frederick thesis, the removal of the self-due to or justified by the lack of trade, ties to others), and.

Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1476 Words | 5 Pages. Anomie: the Norm of Normlessness in Modern Society. Anomie , first developed by Emile Durkheim, is very evident in today's society. Thesis! The concept of anomie , according to Durkheim, is . a state of normlessness, where individuals are succumbed to deregulation in their lives and essay about, through out their society brought on by a social change. Robert K. Merton, following the ideas of frederick thesis, Durkheim, developed his own notion of anomie , called Strain Theory . Merton argued that anomie was a day to day function in society, seen as a social structure that embraces the same. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Marcel Mauss 2477 Words | 7 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ……………………………………………………..1 Differential association theory ………………..………………….2 Anomie . theory ……………………………………………………5 Conclusion……………………………………………………….11 References ………………………………………………………..13 INTRODUCTION The crime rate is on the rise in Kenya some theories try to define these rising criminality in Kenya. Anomie theory and differential association theory best explain the rising criminality in Kenya like for example in Kenya many individuals. Anomie , Crime , Crime statistics 2399 Words | 7 Pages.

Section A Briefly outline and highlight the for writing phd thesis contribution of Merton’s strain theory to criminology. Robert K. Merton was an frederick douglas thesis American . sociologist that wrote in the 1930’s putting out for writing, his first major work in frederick douglas thesis essays 1938 called Social Structure and Anomie . After publication, this piece was we worked and tweaked to counter criticisms. The importance of the time frame of which Merton initially began his work is significant, as during this time crime and the approach to crime was examined predominantly based. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1912 Words | 5 Pages. Strain Theory I have chosen to write about Robert Merton’s Strain Theory . Short Essay Always! I find this theory particularly . interesting, especially as it relates to frederick essays, crime and even education.

As noted in our book Sociology in Our Times: The Essentials, the definition of is my family essay, strain theory is that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals (Kendall 164). Frederick! For example, if your goal is obtaining. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 872 Words | 3 Pages. Durkheim and ideas, the Relevance of frederick douglas thesis, His Theories in essay thesis Modern Society. “Treat social facts as things” is an expression that epitomises the works of Emile Durkheim. This essay focuses on four main sociological concepts proposed . by the functionalist Emile Durkheim; the division of labour; mechanical and organic solidarity; anomie and suicide, and examines their relevance in contemporary society. Along with Marx and Weber, Durkheim is considered one of the founding members of modern sociology. He is frederick essays, also credited with making sociology a science through his application of.

Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Social solidarity 1225 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Perspectives on essay pays Theories of Deviance. ?PERSONAL PERSPETIVES ON THEORIES AND DEVIANCE THEORIST THEORY OWN SUMMARY OF THE THEORY OWN SUMMARY OF . DEVIANCE EMILE DURKHEIM CONFLIT THEORY The status of a person affects his life into the society. Because of douglas thesis essays, this class status, it defines who will be the right person and who is wrong. ROBERT MERTON STRAIN THEORY When societal norms, or socially accepted goals, place pressure on the individual to conform they force the individual to either work within the structure society has produced. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 534 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison of Urban Sociological Theories.

Comparison of essay ideas, Urban Sociological Theories In order for an urban sociologist to discover “How urban societies work,” theories of . “urban ecology” or “political economy” are used as a guide in their research. Urban ecology refers to frederick thesis, the importance of social structure and social organization as shaping social life in the city. Urban ecologist concerns for social order, social cohesion, community ties and social differentiation offer key insight to essay, how societies work (Kleniewski, 2001). Alternatively. Anomie , Chicago school , Ecology 917 Words | 3 Pages. Assess the functionalist theory of crime and deviance. marks] This essay will detail the functionalist perspective of crime and deviance. Frederick Douglas Essays! Functionalist theories began to emerge after the ninety five quizlet industrial . revolution in frederick the 18th century. This period was called the enlightenment, and brought about scientific belief as opposed to the feudalist beliefs of on hard work always, religion. Religion no longer had such a powerful impact on peoples’ lives. The aim of sociological theories such as functionalism is to cure social ills, such as poverty and frederick thesis, disease, and on abolition of the slave, possibly even create. Anomie , Bourgeoisie , Criminology 1828 Words | 5 Pages.

Strain Theory of Nathan McCall What causes people to commit crime? This million dollar questions has place many criminologists and researchers . searching for answers. In the past decades, people have tried to explain crime by referring to frederick douglas thesis, the earliest literature of criminal’s atavistic features to five theses quizlet, human biology. Frederick Essays! Recent studies have shows that crime is described in the social environment. While, no one theory can prove the always causes of crime, strain theory has gain support in academic research for its. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2253 Words | 6 Pages. Why People Commit Crime: A Strain Theory Perspective. Why People Commit Crime: A Strain Theory Perspective SOCI150 Criminology Deviance, criminal behavior and wrong doings; why do they occur? . People don't just wake up one morning and say I'm off from work today so why don't I just go rob a bank.

There has to be something in their past or present experiences that cause one to engage in criminal behavior. So what makes people commit crime and most importantly why do they fell they need to frederick thesis, so? Criminologists have studied this question for many years. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2361 Words | 7 Pages. Durkheim's Theory of Suicide The main purpose of this document is to give an explanation to Durkheim’s theory in rules the light of . Frederick Essays! his sociological analysis of suicide. I will stress the importance of suicide that Durkheim considered and how he was competent enough to present reasons to the social causes, as well as examining the on abolition slave trade variations in frederick thesis essays suicide rates by means of his hypothesis of social integration and regulatory functions of rules for writing phd thesis, society. In doing so, this will determine the outcome if there are. Frederick! Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Kamikaze 2248 Words | 6 Pages. Essay Thesis Ideas! Merton's numerous childhood encounters composed a basis for his theory of social structure. The field of criminology and douglas essays, criminal justice has . employed many of essay, Merton’s prominent concepts such as anomie , strain, manifest and latent functions, self-fulfilling prophecy, deviant, and the theory of thesis essays, reference groups. His theories are usually concentrated on the understanding of deviant cultures.

This essay would seek to evaluate some of Merton’s theories , its contribution to criminology, its criticisms and its. Essay Independence Day In English! Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 2203 Words | 8 Pages. mess and she just got passed around, anyone could be the manager. Douglas! 6a Workers are cut off from the fruits of there labor. 6bYou can start study groups to essay on hard work pays, . connect with others in a informal setting. To share frustration and or give approval. 6c Anomie in a sense of normlessness and it comes from strain cased from trying to meet a goal you will never meet in society. Alienation is you are separated for from the end result of the work you are doing 7aThe rationalization of society brought the. Anomie , Max Weber , Social class 796 Words | 3 Pages. A Blow-By-Blow of douglas thesis essays, Deviance: Analyzing the Relationship Between General Strain Theory and essay of the, the Protagonist in the Film Blow. and an adult, or rather a deviant and a non-deviant. Douglas! In this essay I will use General Strain Theory of deviance to illustrate and attempt to world is my family essay, . explain an individual’s motive for engaging in frederick essays criminal behavior such as drug dealing.

Strain theories have been used to phd thesis, explain deviance since sociologist Robert Merton first theorized Emile Durkheim’s concept of anomie in his 1938 analysis “Social Structure and Anomie ,” in which he related the frederick thesis sources of crime and of the slave, deviance to societal “strains” that result. Abuse , Anomie , Crime 2266 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast the frederick douglas thesis essays Changing Experiences of Consumers from the Year 1900 Until Present Day. How Do the Theories of Marz, Durkheim and Weber Help to essay trade, Explain the Changing Consumer Experience and frederick essays, the Emergence of Contemporary Consumer Society. Consumers Markets and Culture | Compare and contrast the changing experiences of consumers from the is my family year 1900 until present day. How do the . theories of thesis, Marx, Durkheim and Weber help to explain the changing consumer experience and the emergence of contemporary consumer society? “Until the eighteenth century the for writing phd thesis word consumption meant waste. ” (Williams, 1976) As consumers our experience of douglas essays, consumption today is exponentially different from that at the turn of the twentieth century in. Anomie , Consumerism , Consumption 2230 Words | 6 Pages. Durkheim’s theories focusing on sociological methodology, division of labor and social solidarity. Essay 3 – Durkheim 03/29/2014 DURKHEIM: A SUMMARY OF THEORIES IN RELATION TO MARX AND WEBER Durkheim’s theories focusing on . sociological methodology, division of labor and social solidarity The majority of Durkheim’s work is interested in society and societies ability to essay independence english, preserve coherence and rationality an period of increasing modernity. Throughout his work Durkheim was intensely concerned that society become a legitimate science, this is especially obvious when reading the book ‘Emile. Frederick Essays! Anomie , Anthropology , Emile Durkheim 1206 Words | 4 Pages.

Assess The Contribution Of Functionalist And New Right Theories And Research To Our Understanding Of Society Today. ?Assess the contribution of Functionalist and New Right theories and rules, research to our understanding of society today (33) Functionalism is a . consensus theory which is frederick thesis essays, based on the theory that society is rules, based on agreement among members of society regarding values, goals and rules in society. Frederick Thesis! Key ideas of essay of the slave trade, functionalism can be traced back to thesis, its founder, Emile Durkheim, who introduced concepts such as social facts and the collective conscience to Sociology. Family! Durkheim used the concept of social facts. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Family 1195 Words | 3 Pages. ? Individual Freedom within Society: Unattainable and Undesirable Utilizing Durkheim and Merton’s Theories to Highlight . the Inconvenience yet Necessity of Societal Regulation The ideal of pursuing individual freedom and autonomy has been a value that has permeated society for decades, if not centuries. Frederick Thesis Essays! Actions in essay about day in english today’s capitalist society are motivated by douglas thesis, self-promotion and ambition to attain monetary and essay on abolition trade, societal success.

That said, many sociological theorists. Anomie , Autonomy , Emile Durkheim 1268 Words | 4 Pages. Scly4 Functionalist Approach to Crime and frederick, Deviance. finally crime doesn’t always promote solidarity e.g. Rules! women staying inside due to fear of attack. Merton’s strain theory Strain . theories argue that people engage in deviant behaviour when they are unable to achieve socially approved goals by legitimate means. The first strain theory was that developed by the functionalist Robert K Merton (1938) who adapted Durkheim’s concept of anomie to explain deviance. Merton’s explanation combines two elements: Structural factors- society’s unequal opportunity. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1074 Words | 4 Pages. Frederick! Paper Proposal: Sociological Theories of slave trade, Suicide SOC 101 Introduction Suicide is the act of killing yourself. It is the frederick douglas thesis 11th . leading cause of death in America (CDC 2009).

I have never had any intentions on committing suicide and I never really understood why people commit suicide that’s why I chose this topic to help me understand what problems people go through that makes them do such a thing. Sociology is the study of social behavior and quizlet, the culture of humans. There are numerous. Anomie , Death , Emile Durkheim 1467 Words | 4 Pages. Durkheimian Theories Applied to frederick essays, Buffalo Creek. When these limits or social regulations break down, the controlling authority the society once had no longer functions and people are left on their own to . make their own plans. In societies that have low levels of social regulations, a state of five, Anomie , or normlessness, can occur and affect the whole society or just some of its groups. Anomic suicide was more prevalent in this type of society. Anomic suicide basically involves an imbalance of means and needs, where the means were unable to fulfill.

Anomie , Buffalo Creek Flood , Coal slurry impoundment 1974 Words | 5 Pages. ? Strain Theory in frederick douglas Relation to essay ideas, Crime Strain causes people to act against frederick, the law, breaking laws to attain their means. Merton’s . theory on strain and anomie provides us with reasons for why the offender committed the crime break and essay on abolition of the trade, enter. Merton’s strain theory shows us that the offender understood the thesis essays norms of ninety five theses, society but could not attain the means of it, he needed money go back to frederick douglas, his girlfriend who was out west. Merton’s theory states that an work always pays individual who is lacking in social forms is more. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Douglas Thesis! ? Penn State Case In order to get the clear understanding of the Case which is known as the Penn State and was related to the sexual . abuse, the Differential theory can be very adequate in understanding and dealing with such issues. In the case Gerald Sandusky, who was the former assistant coach of the Pennsylvania State University, was found guilty for the sexual abuse. On Hard Always! Forty five counts were convicted out of the total forty eight counts. This ensured that he was accused.

Anomie , Child abuse , Graham Spanier 938 Words | 3 Pages. Social Organized Crime Perspective. organized system that exists to satisfy basic social needs. These institutions help connect individuals to a larger social group. In this paper I will . discuss and explain how organized crime relates to social institutions. I will also explain which theories can be applied to frederick douglas, organized crime and criminal behavior. Organized crime is ninety five theses, considered a social institution because it fills a void some members of society need. Frederick Douglas Essays! Organized crime groups capitalize on consumer demands for goods and services; drugs. Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 853 Words | 3 Pages. movies) Medium (Boot camp) Minimum (have no fences) KCIW- Women prison Ectomorph- thin/frail Mesomorph- lean/ muscular Endomorph- heavy/ slow Durkheim, . Anomie - Normlessness Anomie - to describe the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective. Merton- Anomie theory of Deviance (Strain Theory ) Cultural Goals (What people want) Institutimealized (Norms) Means (How to get there) Merton’s Five Modes of adaptation Conformity (Who’s in Charge) Innovation. Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 861 Words | 5 Pages. On Abolition Of The Slave! idea, his consensus theory of structural functionalism took root, which says that crime serves several functions in society. First, it creates . Frederick Douglas! moral boundaries for the rest of society; second, crime creates higher social cohesiveness, an in-group and essay trade, an out-group, in the population that refrains from committing crimes.

Durkheim’s concept of frederick douglas, anomie , or normlessness, originally focused on the effect of lack of regulations and human connection on suicide rates. This concept of anomie was expanded by Robert. Ninety Five! Anomie , Crime , Crime statistics 1236 Words | 4 Pages. Frederick! This essay will compare and contrast the concepts of ninety theses quizlet, ‘alienation’ and ‘ anomie ’. Karl Marx first outlined his theory of alienation . in essays The Economic and essay, Philosophic Manuscripts (1844) and refers to essays, a define set of social relationships that were first formed in feudal societies which then became disrupted by modern industrial society. Marx himself said when discussing the topic of alienation “The worker becomes poorer the more wealth he produces and the more his production increases in power and extent. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Karl Marx 1938 Words | 6 Pages. Strain Theory on White collar crime: Counterfeit University of Oklahoma April 14, 2014 . White collar crime is a defined as a crime committed by an individual of high spcial ranking, that receives alot of repsect in the comunity, the term coined by socialogist Sutherland. Over the years this descriptio of white collar crime has been contested and now covers a range of crimes. One in particular is counterfeit.

This can happen. Anomie , Counterfeit , Criminology 2619 Words | 7 Pages. Essay Of The Slave Trade! people who make a living by frederick, reacting to crime (such as law enforcement agents), or studying crime (criminologists) disseminate information in the form of . Rules For Writing! crime statistics, books, articles, editorials, and government publications. There are numerous theories on crime and deviance, some more valid than the rest. According to Edwin H. Sutherland, crime could be linked to frederick douglas, what he called differential association (Sutherland 1949). It put forth the notion that a society contains a myriad of subcultures, some. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1275 Words | 4 Pages. organism. When this state of is my, organic solidarity is douglas thesis essays, formed, problems such as anomie are rectified. David Emile Durkheim was a French . sociologist most famous for his book The Division of Labour In Society. Durkheim was considered a prodigy while he was in school.

The main objective of the book was to explain the relationship between an individual and social solidarity. The chapter looked into his other works and world family, the theories he developed. The “Division of Labour” was an important theme that Durkheim. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Religion 988 Words | 3 Pages. William Spengler and the Strain Theory Mohammad Gilani Humber College PFP 201 Amanda Scala Monday, March 25, 2013 William Spengler . and the Strain Theory William Spengler Jr. killed two firefighters and severely injured 2 other firefighters and a police officer. Police later found that he was also associated with other crimes. Police say that they could not find a motive for his actions, but General Strain theory provides some suggestions as to why William Spengler would commit the crimes. Anomie , Crime , Emile Durkheim 2310 Words | 6 Pages. Social Structure Theory Research Paper.

? Social Structure Theory Research Paper Benjamin Rodriguez Crime Theory and Causes 2041 May 8, 2013 . The easiest way that I can explain social structure theory is by using examples from douglas thesis, my own life. I grew up in the projects with my single drug addict mother and my little sister. From birth I was raised surrounded by drugs, violence, prostitution and for writing, many other crimes. My mom has never worked and we grew up on nothing but government aid. All these things. Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 1908 Words | 5 Pages. Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology. ?Assess the contribution of Social Action Theory to sociology: Social Action Theorists, or Interactionists are also known as micro . sociologists, this is because instead of looking at the bigger picture in society, and frederick, how the large structures and institutions such as the ninety education and judiciary systems affect individuals, which is what Marxists and douglas thesis, Functionalists (macro sociologists) look at, Social Action Theorists look at for writing phd thesis, the opposite, how us, individuals, act by our own accord, and how we make. Frederick Douglas Essays! Anomie , Behavior , Family 941 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Always Pays! peer pressure got the best of me. Frederick Douglas! I knew it was wrong… so why did I do it? Theories of deviance: “Labeling Theory ” suggests . that deviance is phd thesis, caused by the deviant person being negatively labeled, internalizing the frederick douglas essays label, and family essay, acting according to the label. An example of this theory is a prison system that labels people convicted of theft, and because of this they start to frederick, view themselves as thieves. Quizlet! “Conflict Theory ” is based upon the view that the frederick fundamental causes of crime are the social.

Anomie , Crime , Criminal justice 1523 Words | 5 Pages. focus on the sociological theory of anomie popularised by Emile Durkheim. In doing this I hope to avoid the mire of ever changing . policy and legislation, and find a steady viewpoint. I shall explore how anomie defines and creates the social condition of homelessness. In doing so I shall highlight the role society plays in maintaining a state of homelessness and the dualism of conformity and anomie . French sociologist, Emile Durkheim defined the social state of anomie as a situation in which social. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Homelessness 1112 Words | 3 Pages. another to adequately run the essay thesis government. Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! Another concept Durkheim created was anomie . Anomie , or normlessness, is the breakdown . of short work always pays, social norms in a society. Individuals cannot find their place in society without clear rules to frederick thesis, guide them; therefore, changing conditions as well as adjustment of life can lead to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance.

Durkheim observed that social periods of disruption, or anomie , could lead to economic depression and war and higher rates of suicide, crime. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Religion 1147 Words | 3 Pages. Britain are becoming increasingly secular. About Day In English! This means that they don’t believe in religion as much, and therefore how can religion act as a collective . Frederick Thesis Essays! conscience. People are turning to science as a way of life, theories which head down the evolutionary approach. It suggests that the world is my family theory is frederick, out of date.

Malinowski looked at the psychological function of religion. This looked at when things such as funerals and divorce occur. Religion acts as an act of hope which allows individuals to feel at ease. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Islam 994 Words | 3 Pages. Critically compare and contrast traditional marxist and functionalist perspectives on crime.

are many explanations beginning with Durkheim who was a functionalist, there is Merton who doesn't totally agree with Durkheim but adopted his . theory on ' Anomie ' and made it his own. Michelle Deluce Tutor: Joanne Green CRIMINOLOGY Page 1 CRITICALLY COMPARE AND CONTRAST FUNCTIONALIST AND TRADITIONAL MARXIST PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME There are many theories on family why crime exists as well has who is frederick thesis essays, committing the crimes and the underlying reasons behind it The two main perspectives being Traditional Marxist. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 2407 Words | 7 Pages. The Influence of Durkheim on Modern Criminological Investigation. Ninety Theses Quizlet! saintly of societies. Durkheim’s theories regarding the normality and inevitability of crime, along with his influential concepts of . anomie , the division of labour and mechanical and organic solidarity, had a lasting effect on the field of criminological study, particularly in subsequent research conducted by fellow populist theorists of the Chicago School. Emile Durkheim was on of the first sociologists to reject both biological and psychological populist theories of crime and criminal behaviour. Anomie , Anthropology , Crime 1452 Words | 5 Pages. two of their theories - Marx’s theory of alienation and Durkheim’s theory of anomie , and douglas thesis, will look at . the essay similarities and differences in their thinking. Marx (1818-1883) wrote the frederick thesis Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts in 1844, and one of these manuscripts, entitled ’Estranged Labour’, contains his discussion of alienation - the experience of isolation resulting from powerlessness. Marx’s basic concern was with the structures of capitalism that cause this alienation. He offered a theory of alienation.

Anomie , Economics , Emile Durkheim 1409 Words | 4 Pages. About Day In! Distinguish Between Crime as a Social and a Sociological Problem, to What Extent Should Sociologists Attempt to Combat “the Social Problem of Crime” In this essay we shall look at what crime is, what social problems are, and what sociological problems are , how they overlap and we will also look into . what sociologists do and frederick douglas, look into Robert Merton’s strain theory , and also other sociologists views like William Chambliss’s ‘roughnecks and saints’. A crime is the breaking of certain rules laid out by a society i.e. the Government. Crime is said to be ‘activities that break the law and are subject to official punishment (Holborn and Haralambos. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1954 Words | 6 Pages. normal, mainstream culture may see as deviant. For example; in parts of Africa polygamy is allowed where as in mainstream western culture it is illegal. Work! . Durkheim’s develops this further and maintains that in modern societies there is frederick essays, a tendency towards anomie this is due to the rules governing behaviour have become weaker and less clear-cut because of the specialised division of labour modern societies have, that leads to individuals becoming increasingly different to one another therefore not all the.

Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1741 Words | 3 Pages. our society. On Hard Pays! The social-conflict approach view that social behavior is the best understood in terms of tension between groups over power or allocations of . resources. Conflict theory point out that people with power protect their own interests and define deviance to frederick thesis essays, suit their own needs. When we talk about conflict theory , we always think about Karl Marx. He states that deviance is the quizlet result from social inequality. He argues that, under the capitalism, it is the conflict between two groups which. Anomie , Criminal justice , Criminology 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Critically Evaluate the Contributions of Functionalism to the Study of Society.

Critically evaluate the contributions of frederick douglas thesis essays, functionalism to the study of society. Functionalist theory is one of the major theoretical . perspectives in sociology. It can be argued that the functionalist theory has made a significant contribution to the study of society. It originates from the work of Emile Durkheim who suggests that social order is possible and society remains stable due to the functioning of several institutions. Everything has a specific function in society and society will always. Anomie , Anthropology , Emile Durkheim 2078 Words | 6 Pages. Robert Merton: Anomie Theory (sometimes also termed strain theory or means-ends theory ) In one of world is my, . the douglas thesis most famous articles in sociology, its first version written in the 1940s, Robert Merton begins by rules phd thesis, addressing biological explanations of deviance and concludes that biology cannot account for variations from one society to the next in the nature and douglas, extent of deviance. His primary interest is not so much why a particular individual deviates, but why the rates of deviance differ so dramatically in. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 1210 Words | 4 Pages.

CJ 4250 COMMUNITY BASED CORRECTIONS Lesson Seven (Student) Chapter 7 – Treatment Theory and world, Practice Student Instructions: . Read Chapter 7 pages 163– 191, answer the following questions and submit them to your instructor. 1. What is theory ? A theory is part of an frederick essays explanation- a statement about the relationship between two classes of phenomena that permits us to better understand our environment, that helps. Anomie , Crime , Criminology 536 Words | 3 Pages. Short On Hard Work Always! Conceptual Analysis on Social Behavior: Deviance. point where they do deviance as a way to manage the thesis essays strain. Often their deviance is due to their feelings of anomie —meaningless due to world is my, not . understanding how the social norms are to affect them. This is usually because the norms are weak, confusing, or conflicting. Robert K. Merton, an essays American sociologist, discussed deviance in terms of goals and essay thesis ideas, means as part of his Strain/ Anomie theory . Nature of Man: Merton postulated that an individual's response to societal expectations and the means by which. Anomie , Criminology , Deviance 822 Words | 3 Pages. social group. Sociologists determine 2 basic forms of social - informal control and formal control. Formal social control usually . involves the state. External sanctions are enforced by the government to prevent violence, or anomie in society.

Formal means that of social control are the means that of social control exercised by the government and different organizations that use enforcement mechanisms and sanctions like fines and imprisonment to enact social control. Thesis! In democratic. Anomie , Criminology , Emile Durkheim 1816 Words | 5 Pages. Evaluate Functionalists Views on about day in english the Role of Functions in Society Today. Evaluate Functionalists views on the role and functions of religion today. Functionalism is a macro theory , which is based on society as a . whole, rather than just that of the individual. It is argued that functionalism generates many things for douglas, society.

Religion, from a functionalist point of view, socialises people, teaching them norms and values of society, which are the basis for social unity. Religion further is world is my essay, a structure within functionalism which aids in influencing individuals lives. Anomie , Emile Durkheim , Karl Marx 2524 Words | 7 Pages.

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Law and Ethics in Nursing Essay Sample. According to douglas, Edwards (2009) “Ethical problems are faced continuously in our day to day lives.” He then goes on to discuss various examples of the types of ninety theses quizlet, ethical issues many individuals can face during a typical day, such as a homeless person asking for money for food and douglas essays, explains how this common dilemma has an ethical dimension to it that most ordinary people may not be aware of. When defining an ethical dilemma, the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) (1997) bring a human element to the definition and explain how choices are made with the consideration personal feelings, principles, beliefs and personal opinion of what is good or bad within a situation (Jones, 2007). Nurses are faced with many more ethical problems on a day to essay on hard work always, day basis within health care environments than ordinary members of the community and the increasing variety of ethical issues that arise within modern nursing practice is why it is essential that nurses study law and ethics (Edwards, 2009).The literature suggests nurses are far more likely to experience ethical dilemmas on a daily basis and thesis essays, often these ethical problems are associated with legal issues. Chaloner (2007) describes law and ethics as ‘instruments of regulation’ and uses an example relating to always, public opinion of intentional killing to frederick thesis essays, provide scope for a brief discussion on how statute law can sometimes reflect society’s ethical views. It is also imperative that registered nurses have a sound legal knowledge and understand the legal consequences of short work pays, their actions (Dingwall, 2007) Chaloner (2007) believes that understanding ethics within nursing is essential to providing skilled nursing care in frederick douglas thesis, practice.

The advances in essay on abolition of the trade, modern medicine have directly affected the role of nurses and as a result nurses are now faced with decision making that may conflict their own moral values (Edwards, 2009). The study of ethics can enhance nursing practice by ensuring that nurses have the skills and knowledge to thesis essays, tackle ethical dilemmas and the study of ethics also helps to develop nurses own personal moral values and beliefs, ensuring that they are able to make ethical decisions with a higher quality of reasoning (Allmark, 2005). This assignment aims to explore the legal and ethical implications of covert medication administration based on an incident witnessed in practice and will conduct a critical analysis using Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle. This assignment will also examine the moral theories and essay of the trade, principles that affect every day nursing practice and will examine the rationale for reflective practice in nursing. For the purpose of this assignment and to maintain confidentiality in frederick douglas essays, accordance with the NMC’s Code of Professional Conduct (2008) the patient’s name within the critical incident has been changed. Moral theories examine how we make decisions based on our own personal beliefs e.g. Phd Thesis. what we believe is frederick thesis essays, right or wrong and the factors that influence our beliefs. Ninety Five Theses. Edwards (2009) identifies three influential moral theories that are often related to nursing practice; Utilitarianism, Deontology and virtue theory.

Utilitarianism theories were originally devised by J. Bentham [1748-1832] and J.S. Frederick Douglas Thesis. Mill [1808-73]. Beauchamp Childress (2008) describe utilitarianism as a consequence based theory and identify the main principle of this theory as utility, stating “This principle asserts that we ought always to produce the maximal balance of positive value over disvalue (or the least possible disvalue if only undesirable results can be achieved).”(P.341). The authors then explain how the essay about day in english Utilitarian approach to ethics is one that believes that negative actions can be justified as long as the outcome was positive. Edwards (2009) gives an example of how the Utilitarian theory relates to ethical decision making in douglas thesis essays, nursing by describing a terminally ill patient in constant pain. Edwards (2009) then continues to discuss how the Utilitarian approach with regards to care for this patient would be based upon opting for the course of thesis ideas, treatment that would result in the least amount of pain, regardless of other consequences. Frederick Essays. Deontological theories, also known as duty-based ethics, are often referred to in the literature as non-consequentialist ethics due to the main principles conflicting with those of consequentialist ethics. The key elements of deontology can be simplified as shown below, stated by the BBC: “Duty-based ethics teaches that some acts are right or wrong because of the sorts of things they are, and people have a duty to act accordingly, regardless of the essay on hard good or bad consequences that may be produced.” “Duty-based Ethics” from BBC Ethics Guide http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics Noble-Adams (1999) describes the Utilitarianism and deontological theories as the frederick douglas two dominant theories of on abolition, ethics although notes that each of douglas essays, these theories have their limitations.

Noble-Adams (1999) believes that the world is my family Utilitarian approach is faltered as the consequences of douglas essays, actions are hard to essay ideas, predict or validate which could pose a risk of harm to others. The deontological approach is also criticised by Noble-Adams (1999) due to the fact that following stringent moral rules, as is common with this approach, make it difficult to choose the right course of action. Frederick Thesis Essays. Edwards (2009) agrees with the criticisms made by Noble-Adams (1999) and believes that it is about independence day in, extremely difficult to foresee the frederick douglas thesis consequences of particular acts and also notes how Utilitarianism can often lead to a lack of truth telling (p.32) which poses conflict for thesis, nurses in frederick, particular with relation to essay ideas, moral principles and frederick douglas essays, the NMC’s Code of theses, Professional Conduct (2008). Edwards (2009) explores the limitations of the deontologist theory in more detail than Noble-Adams (1999) by firstly discussing the difficulties in understanding the work of philosopher Kant (p.34) and secondly discussing in detail the moral implications of thesis essays, truth telling in contrast to Kant’s theory (p.39-41). Edwards (2009) gives an example of how lying could be ethically justified within the text by using a hypothetical situation where an innocent relative or friend could be at on abolition slave, risk and the only way to protect them would be to tell a lie.

The author then states how “…lying is never justified for Kant.” (p.40) and goes on to note the implausibility of that statement in relation to nursing practice. Edwards (2009) offers further criticisms suggesting that the frederick douglas literature behind the theory is ninety quizlet, inadequate and douglas thesis, also states that he believes the deontological theory to be inappropriate in the health care setting. Conversely, Forschler (2013) introduces a new dimension to the arguments for essay on abolition of the trade, and against each theory by comparing the arguments of two authors with conflicting views as to whether Kant’s views could have led him to Utilitarianism had his own bias not affected his approach. Frederick Douglas. Chaloner (2007) believes these established theories to be fundamental to ethical decision making in practice and suggests that by studying these concepts and principles, nurses can make an ethical analysis when faced with ethical dilemmas. Edwards (2009) writes of the principle-based approach to ethics in always, which nurses are encouraged to focus on the four moral principles identified by Beauchamp and douglas essays, Childress (2008) (p.12). World. They offer a set of moral principles that they believe should function as a basis for ethics within nursing as follows; respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. During discussion of nursing ethics Meetoo (2009) states his belief that there are no solutions to ethical problems and that they should not be sought. However, Meetoo (2009) relates the principled approach to douglas, the topic within his article addressing each of the four principles in detail, yet he is reluctant to promote the use of one ethical framework.

He claims that if alternatives to the principled approach were more widely available nurses would be able to make ethical decisions with more multicultural and international considerations. The four moral principles within the principled approach are defined as autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice. Autonomy is defined in the literature as the ability to make one’s own decisions freely and maintain personal morals, values and beliefs as individuals. Thus to be autonomous is to be free to make our own decisions and be in control of our own lives (McParland et al, 2000). Non-maleficence relates to the moral obligation not to inflict harm on others physically or mentally and beneficence describes the obligation to ‘do good’, prevent/remove harm and act in english, ways that promote well-being in thesis, others (Edwards, 2009). The principle of essay on abolition, justice in relation to nursing requires being just and fair to all patients and respecting their human rights and dignity (Hussey, 2011). The UKCC (1992) states that nurses’, midwives and health visitors should ensure that they act in douglas thesis, the best interests of their patients and thesis, promote and frederick douglas thesis, safeguard their interests. This directly relates to the principled approach to nursing practice, as to protect and safeguard an individual is part of ensuring they are able to make independent well informed decisions as stipulated by the NMC Code of about independence day in english, Conduct (2008). McParland et al (2000) suggest that one of the frederick douglas thesis essays ways in quizlet, which nurses can ensure they respect autonomy in practice is by ensuring patients and their families are given relevant information relating to their care and encouraged to make their own decisions, regardless of the potential outcomes or the moral values the nurse may have. Beauchamp and Childress (2008) also discuss how respecting autonomy involves the frederick obligations to respect the decisions of others and allow others to be self-governing.

The principle of autonomy directly links with non-maleficence and beneficence when it comes to ethical decision making within nursing practice and a good example of this can be found when examining the literature relating to covert medication. Tweddle (2009) explains how the essay on hard work principles of beneficence and non-maleficence can conflict when making ethical decisions relating to health care. When discussing whether to frederick essays, conceal medication in food is in the best interests of the patient, Tweddle (2009) states “The underlying question is whether the harm caused by on abolition slave trade giving the medication covertly is greater than the douglas essays harm the patient may sustain if they do not receive the medication at all.” (p.938) In this example it would be considered non-maleficent to administer medication covertly as to withhold the medication could result in harm, however the beneficence of the act must also be considered and in this case it would be the obligation to act positively and honestly, which would stipulate that to give medication covertly is a dishonest act which could not be considered beneficent (Tweddle, 2009). Another notable example of how the four principles conflict in nursing practice is that of nurses being advocates for patients and McParland et al (2000) gives the example of how a nurse may explain a procedure to a patient that they may not have understood when explained by another healthcare professional. The principle of autonomy takes the main focus here as to remain autonomous the patient must be well informed of the procedure in order to make an autonomous choice regarding their care. Advocating for world is my family, the patient in this way is beneficent and non-maleficent as explaining the procedure fully to frederick douglas thesis essays, the patient is ensuring that no harm is short essay on hard pays, caused (non-maleficent) and giving the patient an honest, clear description of the procedure is to benefit the patient and ensure the situation is improved (beneficent). The principle of justice is maintained in this example as the frederick douglas nurse is ensuring the patient is well informed which would suggest that the nurse is mindful and respectful of the human rights of the patient. However this kind of advocacy is highly likely to cause conflict within the care team and rules for writing, the nurse advocating could find themselves in thesis essays, a difficult position between the essay english duty to the patient and the duty to work as part of a team (McParland et al, 2000). Edwards (2009) also advises against nurses bombarding patients with an amount of information that they may find overwhelming. Even when all the frederick thesis essays information given by the nurse is relevant and/or important, Edwards (2009) warns that to do so is independence, not to frederick thesis essays, respect their autonomy.

Tweddle (2009) discusses how the duty for health care professionals to respect autonomy can conflict with the principle of beneficence when related to the refusal of treatment. The author describes how beneficent acts aim to promote physical wellbeing and reduce suffering yet acknowledges that it is not possible to define what beneficent acts are specifically as individuals have different ideas and definitions of illness and pain (p.936). Each of the four principles will be explored in greater detail and related to the ethical dilemma within the analysis section later in this assignment. Thesis Ideas. The use of the principled approach to frederick thesis essays, ethical decision making interlinks with the use of reflective practice within nursing in the sense that the four principles can be reflected upon and explored further using reflection. The next section aims to highlight the importance of reflection in modern nursing practice and the ways in which nurses can reflect using reflective models. Reflection is a necessary part of nursing practice as it can facilitate the understanding of thesis, actions carried out and frederick thesis, the consequences that follow, and is a way of phd thesis, learning from experience (McSherry et al, 2002). There are two types of reflection that can be related to nursing practice discussed in the literature; reflection in action and reflection on action (Schon, 1991). Reflection in frederick douglas, action is essay day in english, when an individual reflects on frederick douglas thesis essays the situation as it occurs and reflection on action is when an individual reflects on the situation after the event (Burns Bullman, 2000). The reflection used within this assignment will be reflection on action, as the incident was reflected upon after the event occurred. Atkins Murphy (1993) believe that the literature relating to reflection lacks depth and the clear concept of reflection is not clarified by the authors that explore it. Independence. This view is echoed by Andrews, Gidman Humphreys (1998) who also detail how reflection is more than just recollection and go on to discuss how reflection can be used as an educational tool for nurses if the process of reflection is taught correctly.

Taylor (2000) believes that there is a great deal of importance in nurses aspiring to be reflective practitioners and thesis, discusses how describing, analysing and evaluating care provided to essay on hard always pays, patients could be imperative to the improvement of future nursing care. The literature relating to reflection and reflective practice highlights the importance of douglas thesis, analysing critical incidents in order to fully understand the concept of rules phd thesis, reflection and essays, use it to enhance nursing practice. However Andrews et al (1998) dispute the fact that reflection can immediately benefit and improve nursing practice by noting how there is little evidence in the literature to prove this theory and thesis, that often it is presumed that reflection will lead to better nursing practice with no theoretical proof. Frederick Douglas. Andrews et al (1998) examine the literature and five quizlet, conclude that the process of reflection bares more importance to the content of the reflection, noting also how there is a need for more research and clarification on this topic There are several processes for reflection defined in the literature. Schon (1991) identifies three stages of reflectivity as conscious reflection, criticism and action (Atkins Murphy, 1993 p.1189). Atkins Murphy (1993) interpret the first stage as an awareness of uncomfortable thoughts and frederick, feelings, the second involving a critical analysis of the situation and the third stage being the development of a new perspective following the use of stages one and two, concluding that the overall outcome of reflection is learning. Mezirow (1981) defines the short on hard always conclusive stage as ‘perspective transformation’ (Atkins Murphy 1993, p.1190). The authors detail how the literature moves from studying reflective processes to reviewing the thesis essays skills needed by trade those promoting reflection as an educational tool yet notes how the skills required are not specifically identified (p.1190).

Conversely, Andrews et al (1998) refer to reflecting as a ‘highly skilled activity’ (p.414) although the authors argue that the skills required for reflection are taken for granted in frederick essays, many cases and discuss how assumptions are often made that reflection in nursing practice does not require much effort, suggesting that nurses have always done it. The literature offers a multitude of ideas and opinions on why nurses should reflect and the key aspects have been developed into numerous frameworks available to essay thesis ideas, assist nurses with the reflective process (Barnett, 2005). Broad frameworks have been developed by theorists Gibbs (1981) and thesis essays, Johns (1994) with a view to enable nurses to reflect critically using a logical approach (Somerville Keeling, 2004). Johns’ (1994) model of structured reflection asks the user five questions that aim to enable the user to break down the events of the incident and reflect on the outcomes (see appendix 2). This model was originally based on Carper’s (1978) 4 patterns of knowing; ethics, aesthetics, personal knowledge and empirics (Johns, 1995). Barnett (2005) selects Johns’ (1994) model for essay ideas, her critical analysis as she believes that the model provides a systematic structure that encourages the user to examine personal thoughts and actions. Barnett (2005) also suggests that this model is douglas thesis essays, suitable for practitioners who are new to ninety five theses, reflection due to the simplicity of the douglas essays framework and phd thesis, the ability to adapt the frederick douglas essays model to most situations. The contrasting framework to be explored here is Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle. Comprising of ninety, six stages, (see appendix 1) Gibbs’ model asks the thesis essays practitioner to answer questions about the event in a specific order, encouraging them to reflect on the experience with a structured and logical approach. Jones (2007) writes a reflective account using Gibbs’ (1988) model and explains that her reasons for doing so are due to ways in ninety theses quizlet, which the model encourages personal development and the simplicity of the framework overall.

She uses the model to thesis, identify the dilemma and then conduct an is my essay analysis of the douglas incident in which she examines the legal and ethical perspectives before coming to a conclusion that includes her opinions on essay on hard work always pays what she would do differently if the douglas thesis essays incident were to arise again. For Writing. Gibbs’ (1988) model will be used in this assignment due to the simplicity of the questions within the model and the ways that the thesis model encourages the user to essay on hard always pays, explore and reflect on every aspect of the incident. Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle has been selected for frederick essays, this assignment after careful consideration and comparison to Johns’ (1994) model on the basis that Gibbs’ (1988) offers a simplistic approach yet allows the user to fully explore each section. Rules. It was also discovered within the literature that Johns’ (1994) model encourages the user to explore more complex personal thoughts and feelings in greater depth than Gibbs’ (1988) model (Barnett, 2005), something that is not relevant to the critical incident that will be explored in this assignment. The use of the model by Jones (2007) suggests that Gibbs’ (1988) offers the correct framework to follow when exploring the critical incident below, as Jones (2007) is able to easily identify the legal and ethical implications within the incident in a logical style that is easy for the reader to interpret. The following critical incident will be explored using the six-stage cycle (see appendix 1) addressing each question as it is depicted within the cycle, beginning with the first stage which asks the reflector to thesis, describe the event to be examined. Essay On Hard Pays. During a clinical placement in douglas, a community hospital I often observed the medication rounds and noted that a particular patient’s medication was being administered covertly on a regular basis. The patient concerned was Mrs Green*, a 93 year old female suffering with dementia who had been admitted from a nursing home after developing a chest infection. Mrs Green was reluctant to is my family, take any medication when prompted and douglas thesis essays, due to rules for writing, her lack of frederick thesis essays, capacity, the essay on abolition of the slave trade nurses had taken to administering her morning anti-psychotic medication hidden in her porridge.

Mrs Green had no living relatives to advocate for her so the decision to administer her medication in this way was made by the nursing team. The nursing staff on the ward concluded that this was in her best interests after being informed by the nursing home staff that this was how her medication was administered in the nursing home. The ward sister was advised that the decision to thesis, hide the theses quizlet medication in food was due to the confusion and agitation Mrs Green experienced when she had not taken her medication and she noted down this conversation into Mrs Green’s nursing notes to inform other staff of the issue. As my mentor, the ward sister instructed me to administer Mrs Green’s medication covertly and she supervised me as I did so, reassuring me that this was in Mrs Green’s best interests. With Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle in mind I can clearly recall my thoughts and feelings after being instructed to administer medication covertly. Although it was fully explained to me the frederick douglas thesis essays reasons why the medication was given in this way and thesis ideas, I was also shown the documentation supporting the decision to administer covertly, I could not help but feel as though I was not respecting Mrs Green’s autonomy. I was certainly aware of her lack of capacity to consent and felt that given the complexity of the issues relating to the administration of medication to patients who lack capacity, the ward sister should have given the medication instead. At the time I was not comfortable in administering the medication in frederick douglas thesis essays, this way as a student nurse, although upon reflection I became aware that the is my family essay ward sister presented me with a legal and ethical issue that I could learn from and encouraged me to deal with the situation as I would when I become a qualified nurse. The second stage of Gibbs’ (1988) model asks the user to evaluate the incident and decipher what was good and bad about it. In the case of Mrs Green, there are positive and negative aspects of the incident that can be identified using reflection. The decision to douglas essays, administer medication covertly did not seem to have been taken lightly, the liaison between the nursing home staff and essay, the ward sister suggests that staff on the ward did not instantly make this decision due to Mrs Green’s confusion and aggression.

The fact that the ward staff contacted the nursing home could suggest that they were indeed trying to act in thesis essays, the best interests of Mrs Green after discovering she suffered from dementia and essay, had no living relatives to douglas, act as advocates. Thesis Ideas. However the liaison between the ward staff and the nursing home could also indicate a negative aspect of this incident as it could suggest that the ward staff contacted the nursing home to ascertain how they administer her medication and upon discovering that they did so covertly, they have simply continued this practice without considering the legal implications or questioning the rationale behind this decision. From what I witnessed during the incident I feel it was a positive experience overall, as it seemed as though the staff were trying to douglas, advocate for Mrs Green and by ensuring she took her prescribed medication they also ensured that she was calm and comfortable throughout her time on the ward. Essay About. The next stage of Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle requires an analysis of the critical incident which will be conducted by examining the literature surrounding the legal and frederick, ethical issues of covert medication. Haw Stubbs (2010) state that the literature relating to independence, covert medication to older adults is ‘sparse’ and conducted a study to review the existing studies of the subject and also reviewed the national guidelines of covert medication along with the legal and ethical implications of such practice. Covert medication is defined by Haw Stubbs (2010) as the practice whereby medication is administered to patients hidden in frederick douglas, food or drink, without their knowledge or consent. Haw Stubbs (2010) describe covert medication as unethical when administered to patients who have mental capacity, capacity being defined by the Mental Capacity Act, (2005) however they give examples of when covert medication is considered to be in the patient’s best interests such as when a patient is incapacitated as a result of learning disabilities, schizophrenia and more commonly in older adults diagnosed with dementia. English. It is widely considered more ethical to administer medication hidden in food and drink as opposed to using forms of restraint or forcible injection (Haw Stubbs 2010, p.762). The authors also refer to English law by noting the charges that could be brought upon a practitioner that has administered medication covertly, such as charges of assault or battery (p.765). Frederick Douglas Thesis. The literature stipulates the importance of adhering to the Mental Capacity Act (2005) when making decisions to is my family essay, administer medication covertly and frederick thesis, this is essay ideas, echoed by the requirements of the NMC’s Code of frederick thesis essays, Professional Conduct (2008). Tweddle (2009) describes autonomy as the ethical principle that relates to free choice and explains that all competent adults have the right to refuse treatment or refuse to consent to treatment.

It is important to english, consider the issue of accountability when administering medication covertly and douglas essays, Tweddle (2009) highlights the importance of the five theses health care professional being able to justify their actions and prove that they were in the best interests of the patient e.g. to prevent suffering or to improve quality of life. Frederick. Tweddle (2009) details the involvement of the incapacitated patient’s relatives as an important factor when making the decision to administer medication covertly. As noted earlier, Mrs Green had no living relatives that could advocate for her which raises the issue of ninety five theses, how the douglas essays decision to hide medication in food is made when there is no advocate for essay on abolition trade, the incapacitated patient. Tweddle (2009) recommends that the decision should not be made in isolation and that health care professionals faced with this ethical decision should liaise with other health care professionals to gain a broader perspective, however this must be done in a way that respects the confidentiality of the patient. Another notable implication of covert medication raised in the literature is that of the need for douglas essays, nurses to have pharmaceutical knowledge of medications and on abolition slave trade, understand the possible implications of crushing tablets or opening capsules (Honkanen, 2001). Stages four and five of Gibbs’ (1988) reflective cycle require the user to establish a conclusion and an action plan.

With consideration of the above analysis of the critical incident concerning Mrs Green, I believe that the ward staff justified their decision to administer medication covertly by taking her condition into account, acknowledged her lack of capacity to consent to treatment and douglas thesis, ensured all discussions with the ward were documented. The ward staff appeared to have made this decision with consideration of the possible result of withholding the medication. On Hard Work Always Pays. This could have resulted in Mrs Greens’ health deteriorating and the decision that was eventually made to administer the medication hidden in thesis, food suggests that the principled approach was used here and the principles of of the slave trade, beneficence and non-maleficence may have conflicted, as discussed earlier. Upon reflection, if this situation arose again in practice, I would be more inclined to frederick essays, ask the ward sister how she would justify her decision to administer medication covertly from a legal perspective and about day in, also what my legal standing would be as a student nurse administering medication covertly under supervision. However I do believe the situation was addressed efficiently and careful ethical decisions were made with Mrs Green’s best interests at thesis, the forefront of the decision making at all times.

Exploring the literature relating the critical incident establishes covert medication as a complex issue that should only take place under extreme circumstances and any practitioner who does so must be able to justify their actions, be able to provide proof and in some cases legal evidence that it was the best option for world is my family essay, the patient. The literature frequently makes references to moral principles, highlighting the need for nurses to study ethics as an understanding of moral theories and principles is needed in order to make ethical decisions in practice. It is important to note how the four moral principles are challenged in relation to patients who lack capacity, such as in the critical incident, where the frederick douglas thesis essays patient lacks the ability to be autonomous. The nurse must advocate for rules for writing, the patient in ways that are beneficent, non-maleficent and ethically justified, something that the literature proves can be difficult due to the key principles of beneficence and non-maleficence often conflicting. Frederick Douglas. Again, this is five, another finding that suggests it is imperative that nurses study ethics. It is evident from examples within the literature that nurses are frequently required to make ethical decisions instantaneously and that it is only really possible to consider the full legal and ethical implications of our actions upon reflection, which highlights the importance of reflective practice in nursing.

Upon further investigation it is clear from the literature that there is a need for more research into the benefits of reflection within nursing practice as the current literature on the subject is quite limited. However the literature that is currently available suggests that reflection has an frederick thesis essays invaluable effect on nursing practice, something discovered within this assignment as it was only upon reflection of the critical incident that the full legal and ninety theses, ethical implications of covert medication were considered and explored further. Allmark P. (2005) Can The Study of Ethics Enhance Nursing Practice? Journal of frederick, Advanced Nursing 51(6), 618–624 Andrews M, Gidman J Humphreys A (1998) Reflection: does it enhance professional nursing practice? British Journal of Nursing 7 (7) 413-417 Atkins, S, Murphy K. (1993) Reflection: a review of the literature.

Journal of Advanced Nursing 18, 1188-1192 Barnett, M. Essay Day In English. (2005) Caring for a patient with COPD: a reflective account. Frederick Essays. Nursing Standard. 19(36) 41-46 Beauchamp, T L, Childress, J F (2008) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 6th edition Oxford, Oxford University Press Burns, S, Bulman, C. (2000) Reflective Practice in Nursing: The Growth of the Professional Practitioner. Is My Family Essay. 2nd Edition Blackwell Science Limited, Oxford.

Chaloner, C (2007) An introduction to ethics in nursing. Nursing Standard. Douglas Thesis Essays. 21, 32, 42-46. Chaloner, C (2007) Ethics in thesis ideas, nursing: the way forward. Nursing Standard. 21, 38, 40-41. Edwards, S D (2009) Nursing Ethics: A Principled-Based Approach 2nd Edition, London: Palgrave MacMillan. Forschler, S (2013) Kantian and Consequentialist Ethics: The Gap Can Be Bridged.

Metaphilosophy 44(1-2) Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford. Frederick Essays. Haw, C, Stubbs J (2010) Covert Administration of Medication to Older Adults: a review of the essay literature and published studies. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 17 761–768 Honkanen L (2001) Point-counterpoint is it ethical to give drugs covertly to people with dementia?

West J Med 174: 229 Hussey, T (2011) Just Caring. Nursing Philosophy 2012. 13, 6-14 Johns C (1995) Framing learning through reflection within Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. (22)2, 226-234 Jones J (2007) Do not resuscitate: reflections on an ethical dilemma. Nursing Standard. 21(46), 35-39 McParland J, Scott P A, Arndt M, Dassen M, Gasull M, Lemonidou C, Valimaki M, Leino-Kilpi H (2000) Autonomy and clinical practice 1: identifying areas of concern. Thesis. British Journal of Nursing 9(8) 507-513 McSherry, R., Simmons, M., Abbott, P. (2002) Evidence-Informed Nursing: A Guide for Clinical Nurses. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, London Meetoo, D (2009) Nanotechnology: is there a need for ethical principles? British Journal of Nursing 18(20) 1264-1268 Mental Capacity Act (2005) The Stationary Office, London. Mezirow J (1990) Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood Jossey-Bass San Fransisco Noble-Adams R (1999) Ethics and Nursing Research 1: Development, Theories and Principles. British Journal of Nursing, 8(13), 888-892 Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008).

Code of Professional Conduct: Standards of on hard work pays, conduct performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London: NMC Royal College of frederick douglas thesis, Nursing (1997)Ethical Dilemmas: Issues in Nursing and Health 43. RCN, London Schon, D. Essay On Abolition Trade. (1991) The Reflective Practitioner 2nd Edition Jossey Bass: San Francisco Somerville, D Keeling, J (2004) A Practical Approach To Promote Reflective Practice Within Nursing. Nursing Times 100(12) 42 Taylor, B. J. (2000) Reflective Practice: A Guide for Nurses and Midwives. Open University Press, Buckingham Tweddle, F. (2009) Covert medication in older adults who lack decision-making capacity. British Journal of Nursing (18) 15 936-939. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Law and Ethics in Nursing. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Law and Ethics in Nursing. Ethics is an douglas essays essential part of what nursing is. Nursing has an eminent chronicle of trepidation for the wellbeing of those who are ill, hurt, and the helpless and is my family, for… Knowledge Development in Nursing. Philosophy has a great impact on douglas the knowledge development on nurses and the nursing field. As McCurry, Revell-Hunter, and Roy (2009) stated, “Knowledge is built upon theories, together with their… Ethics in Nursing.

Today people strive to leave an imprint on the world around them. Towards the beginning of adulthood people choose a path that allows them to essay on hard work pays, take part in one of… What nursing decisions do you think would have the greatest legal implications? Faced with ethical and legal decisions on douglas a daily basis, nurses must at times make some pretty tough decisions including how to proceed with care for an incapacitated patient with… My Nursing Ethic. Values and ethics play a huge role in the nursing practice.

Nursing care involves preventing illness and its complications, promotion or health restoration, and short on hard work always, reducing suffering in the terminally ill…. In our day to day life, each and every person is responsible to make personal decisions, which can have great influence on their workplace, family, colleagues, their country and the…

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Narrative Life Of Frederick Douglass History Essay - UK Essays

Comments regarding Azhar Usman’s apology and setting an American Muslim agenda. After the frederick essays passing of Imam WD Mohammed, “ALLAH Made Me Funny” American-Muslim comedian Azhar Usman wrote a very heartfelt piece about the importance of Imam WD Mohammed in American Muslim history as well as his apology to Blackamerican Muslims. It has actually been the subject of conversation of many within the community and has drawn attention to the elephant in the room that we rarely talk about, which is the internal socio-economic tension among Muslims. My only comment relating to Azhar’s well put essay is in regards to quizlet the portion he wrote about the rich immigrant that drives a Lexus and lives in frederick thesis essays, a palace but won’t give to ninety five the “black masjid” twenty miles away. Frankly, most “Black” masajid don’t solicit funds nor really care if rich suburban immigrants give to the masajid in the “hood.” I would dare to say that we want a seat at the table, not donations/money, to set a shared agenda and have a proportional voice in regards to the priorities of the Muslim community. That’s more desired than getting checks for the masajid in the “hood.” This isn’t to douglas thesis diss Azhar’s point; I get it. However, what I stated above is the greater issue if we are to have some real unity. Unity isn’t having the agenda set then inviting everyone else to the table to comment on theses, a pre-set agenda. Frederick Douglas? That’s control, and that has been the major problem that I’ve had over the years with the immigrant-indigenous relation.

If I can use an analogy with food, let us all come to the table with our own dishes. You eat some of my halal food and vice versa. Then we can appreciate each others’ food. Heck, we might come up with a new dish together. I just don’t want to on hard work pays eat your food, and I don’t want my food dissed. The bottom line is we need to frederick thesis reconnect with the rules phd thesis Islamic concept of “brotherhood”. If we have true love for frederick douglas thesis each other and respect our common humanity, we’ll come into true ikhwah/brotherhood. On Abolition Of The Trade? And when a brother cares enough about another, he doesn’t want to see him hurt himself.

To me, we have been spiritually hurting our own souls with our pseudo-Muslim unity in America. Perhaps Azhar’s timely piece will spark discussions throughout America about this elephant in the room. Heartfelt reflections on frederick essays, the passing of thesis ideas a legendary Blackamerican Muslim leader. On September 11 th , 2008, while countless American flags whipped in the wind and essays, the television and radio waves were dominated by remembrances, recordings, and stories about the family terror attacks of seven years ago, I attended the funeral of Imam W.D. Mohammed (may God be pleased with him). Thesis? For me, it was a somber day, but I found myself mostly lost in thought: about African-American Muslim communities, about the challenges ahead in American Muslim institution- building, and about the future of essay Islam in America. If you don’t know who Imam WDM was, you should look him up. The Sufis say: “The true sage belongs to his era.” And of the many gifts given to Imam WDM by God, perhaps the most obvious and beneficial one was the Imam’s profound understanding of the frederick thesis principles of religion, and short pays, his adeptness at intelligently applying those Islamic principles in a socially and culturally appropriate manner befitting the everyday lives of his North American followers. While carefully respecting sound, traditional jurisprudential methodologies of the Islamic religion, and the collective religious history and time-honored scholarship of classical Islam, he promulgated creative ideas and dynamic teachings across many domains of human endeavor, including theology, law, spirituality and even ethics and aesthetics, that together articulated a vision for a quintessentially “American Muslim” cultural identity. And he did all of this before anyone else, with quiet strength and unending humility—a true sage indeed. So I stood before his final resting place, brokenhearted.

And I suddenly began to feel the weight of the moment, realizing that when God takes back one of his dearly beloved friends, those who are left behind should cry not for the deceased, but rather for douglas thesis essays themselves. Independence? For the fact that they are now without one of God’s friends in their midst, and, in a sense, they are orphaned. Frederick? And the tears began to well up, for I became acutely aware that I was standing in front of the grave of my spiritual grandfather, who was himself a spiritual descendant of Bilal al-Habashi (may God be pleased with him), the mighty and beloved companion of the Prophet himself. Bilal was the first Black African to convert to al-Islam at the hands of the rules for writing Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and keep him) in the sands of Arabia nearly a thousand and a half years ago. Undoubtedly, some measure of that love, mercy, compassion, and spiritual stature that inhabited the heart of Bilal has found its way down through the ages, and douglas thesis, I found myself begging God to transfer to my own heart some glimpse of these realities now laying before me. Almost five years ago, my business partner, Preacher Moss (who is a member of the WDM community) founded the standup comedy tour “Allah Made Me Funny,” and he invited me to essay always be his co-founder. Needless to say, it has been nothing less than an honor to work with him on the project.

But to many, it was an unusual pairing: a Black comic and an Indian comic? Both Muslims? Working together? And before we ever even announced our partnership publicly, we met privately and swore an frederick thesis allegiance to one another—a blood oath of sorts—which was this: No matter what happens, in good times and in rules, bad, we have to frederick be the brothers no one expects us to be . And built on this promise (and premise), we brought on our first collaborator, Brother Azeem (who is a member of Minister Farrakhan’s NOI), with whom we toured for over two years (2004-2006) before parting ways amicably. Then we brought Mohammed Amer onto the team in short essay on hard work always pays, the fall of 2006 (a Kuwaiti-born Palestinian refugee who grew up in essays, a Sunni Muslim family in Houston, Texas).

Mo, Preach, and I are still going strong together, and short always pays, we are grateful for the unqualified support, love, and blessings that Imam WDM and the entire community have always given us. But today, as I observed the funeral proceedings, I felt sad and heavy-hearted. Something wasn’t sitting right. Something was physically paining my heart, and it felt like remorse, shame perhaps, maybe even guilt. Douglas Thesis? I began to realize that the tears flowing from my eyes were as much a function of thesis ideas these feelings as they were any lofty spiritual aspirations of mine. You see, I attended an interfaith event a couple of years ago on 9/11. A group had assembled to essays commemorate the tragic event, to essay ideas honor those who perished that day, and to pledge ongoing inter-community support and bridge-building to thesis fight ignorance, hate, and intolerance. At that event, there was this short, middle-aged, sweet, extremely kindhearted, White Christian woman. When she took the family microphone to speak, she was already teary-eyed, and I assumed that she was going to make some comments about the victims of 9/11, as so many others already had that night. But she didn’t do that.

Instead, she explained that she had become utterly grief-stricken by the constant barrage of news stories she witnessed about Muslims and frederick thesis, Arabs being harassed, profiled, and mistreated after 9/11. She explained that she felt powerless to do anything about it, and that it made her sick to her stomach to essay work always pays hear of hate crimes against Muslims and Arabs, and especially to hear of Christian preachers denigrating Islam and its Prophet. She started to cry, and so did many others in the room, humbled by the magnanimity of this simple woman. And then she did what I thought was a strange thing: she apologized. She prefaced her apology with all the logical disclaimers, such as “I know this may mean nothing to you,” and “I know that I am not the one who did these horrible things,” and douglas essays, “I know that you may dismiss this as empty rhetoric until you see some follow-up action on my part, but anyway,” she continued, “I want to rules for writing apologize on behalf of all the Christians and all non-Muslims and non-Arabs who have been attacking your communities, harassing your people, and douglas thesis essays, accusing your religion of all these horrible things. I’m sorry. I’m very, very sorry.” I was stunned. Speechless, in world is my family, fact. Though all of douglas essays her disclaimers were true, and my skeptical mind knew it, her apology melted our hearts. Here was this powerless servant of God sharing some of her most deeply felt emotional vulnerabilities, and she was apologizing to independence day in Muslims for something she didn’t even do? Jesus (may God bless him and keep him) once famously remarked: “Make the world your teacher,” and so I immediately took this woman as a lesson in douglas, humility.

Admitting her powerlessness made her incredibly powerful. And this brings me to the point (and title) of this essay. I would like to ideas unburden myself of something that has been sitting like a ton of frederick douglas bricks on my heart for my entire life. Short On Hard Work? I want to frederick douglas apologize to rules my Blackamerican brothers and sisters in Islam. I know that this apology may not mean very much; and I know that our American Muslim communities have a LONG way to frederick douglas thesis essays go before we can have truly healthy political conciliation and de-racialized religious cooperation; and I know that I am not the one who is responsible for so much of the historical wrongdoing of so-called “immigrant Muslims”—wrongdoings that have been so hurtful, and insulting, and degrading, and disrespectful, and dismissive, and marginalizing, and is my, often downright dehumanizing. But anyway, for every “Tablighi” brother who may have had “good intentions” in his own subjective mind, but behaved in an utterly insensitive and outrageous manner toward you when he suggested that you need to learn how to urinate correctly, I’m sorry. And for frederick douglas thesis every Pakistani doctor who can find money in his budget to drive a Lexus and live in a million-dollar house in suburbia, and world is my essay, who has the frederick thesis audacity to give Friday sermons about the virtues of “Brotherhood in Islam,” while the “Black mosque” can’t pay the essay heating bills or provide enough money to feed starving Muslim families just twenty miles away, I’m sorry. And for every Arab speaker in frederick essays, America who makes it his business to raise millions and ninety five quizlet, millions of dollars to frederick provide “relief” for Muslim refugees around the world, but turns a blind eye to the plight of theses quizlet our very own Muslim sisters and brothers right here in our American inner cities just because, in his mind, the color black might as well be considered invisible, I’m sorry. And for douglas thesis essays every liquor store in the “hood” with a plaque that says Maashaa’ Allah hanging on essay slave trade, the wall behind the counter, I’m sorry.

And for every news media item or Hollywood portrayal that constantly reinforces the notion that “Muslim=foreigner” so that the douglas thesis consciousness of Blackamerican Muslims begins even to doubt itself (asking “Can I ever be Muslim enough?”), I’m sorry. And for every Salafi Muslim brother (even the ones who used to be Black themselves before converting to Arab) who has rattled off a hadith or a verse from Koran in Arabic as his “daleel” to world is my Kafirize you and make you feel defensive about even claiming this deen as your own, I’m sorry. And for every time you’ve been asked “So when did you convert to frederick essays Islam?” even though that question should more properly have been put to your grandparents, since they became Muslims by the grace of God Almighty back in the 1950s, and raised your parents as believers, and slave, Islam is now as much your own inheritance as it is the one’s posing that presumptuous, condescending question, I’m sorry. And for every time some Muslim has self-righteously told you that your hijab is frederick thesis essays not quite “Shariah” enough, or your beard is not quite “Sunnah” enough, or your outfit is not quite “Islamic” enough, or your Koranic recitation is not quite “Arabic” enough, or your family customs are not quite “traditional” enough, or your worldview is not quite “classical” enough, or your ideas are not “authentic” enough, or your manner of making wudu is not quite “Hanafi,” “Shafi,” “Maliki,” or “Hanbali” enough, or your religious services are not quite “Masjid” enough, or your chicken is ninety five theses not quite “Halal” enough, I’m sorry. And for frederick douglas essays every Labor Day weekend when you’ve felt divided in your heart, wondering “When will we ever do this thing right and essay about independence, figure out how we can pool our collective resources to have ONE, big convention?, ” I’m sorry. And for every time a Muslim has tried to bait you with a question about the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, trying to essays force you to condemn him—turning it into some sort of essay about independence english binary litmus test of true iman —with reckless and irresponsible disregard for douglas the historical fact that he was among the first Black men in America to rules for writing ever do anything meaningful for the upliftment and betterment of Black people, I’m sorry. And for every time you’ve heard of an African-American brother who tried to bring home a South Asian or Arab sister to meet his parents, only to learn that her parents would rather commit suicide than let their daughter marry a “Black Muslim” (a/k/a “Bilalian brother”), even as they cheer hypocritically at stadium style speeches by Imams Siraj Wahhaj, Zaid Shakir, Johari Abdul Malik, or others—or get in line to bring one of them to speak at their multi-million dollar fundraiser for yet another superfluous suburban mosque, I’m sorry. I’m sorry. I’m very, very sorry. From the frederick douglas thesis essays bottom of my heart, I want every African-American Muslim brother and sister to know that I am ashamed of this treatment that you have received and, in on abolition, many cases, continue to receive, over the decades. I want you to know that I am aware of frederick essays it.

I am conscious of the problem. (Indeed, I am even conscious that I myself am part of the problem since curing hypocrisy begins by looking in the mirror.) I am not alone in world is my essay, this apology. There are literally thousands, if not tens of thousands of frederick essays young American Muslims just like me, born to immigrant parents who originate from essay on abolition of the slave trade all over the Muslim world. Frederick Essays? We get it, and we too are sick of the family essay putrid stench of douglas essays racism within our own Muslim communities. Let us pledge to work on this problem together, honestly validating our own and one another’s insecurities, emotions, and feelings regarding these realities. Forgiveness is world needed to right past wrongs, yet forgiveness is predicated on acknowledging wrongdoing and frederick douglas, sincerely apologizing. Essay On Abolition Slave? Let us make a blood oath of sorts. When the bulldozer came to place the final mounds of dirt over the tomb of Imam WDM, I was standing under a nearby tree, under the light drizzle that had just begun (perhaps as a sign of mercy dropping from the heavens as the final moments of the burial were drawing to a close), and I was talking to a dear friend and sister in douglas essays, faith, whose family has been closely aligned with Imam WDM for decades. Essay Ideas? She shared with me a story that her father had just related to her about the passing of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad in 1975 (the same year I was born, incidentally) . She told me that her father described the scene in the immediate aftermath of Elijah’s demise: utter confusion and frederick thesis, chaos within the essay ideas NOI and the communities surrounding it. Frederick Douglas Thesis? There was much debate and discord about what direction the NOI would take, and many were still in shock and denial that the founder had actually died. Out of the five theses quizlet midst of thesis that confusion arose Imam WDM, and along with his strong leadership came an even more, perhaps surprisingly courageous direction: the path away from the world essay Black nationalism, pan-Africanism, and frederick douglas thesis, proto-religious beliefs of his father, and instead the unequivocal charge toward mainstream Islam, the same universal and cosmopolitan faith held and practiced by over a billion adherents worldwide. In this manner, her father explained, the death of Elijah Muhammad became a definitive end to a chapter in our collective history, and the resulting re-direction by Imam WDM marked the beginning of the next, far better, chapter in that unfolding history.

Maybe I am just an idealistic fool, or maybe Pharaoh Sanders was right about the Creator’s Master Plan, but I sincerely believe that all we have to for writing phd thesis do—all of us together: Black folks, South Asians (Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis) , Arabs from essays every part of the Middle East and North Africa , Southeast Asians (Indonesians and Malaysians), Persians, Turks, Latinos, assorted Muslims of rules for writing all stripes, colors, and backgrounds, and yes, even our White Muslim brothers and sisters—is live up to frederick thesis essays a simple promise to one another: No matter what happens, in good times and in bad, we have to rules for writing phd thesis be the brothers and sisters no one expects us to be . It is hoped that the frederick essays passing of Imam WDM will also mark the essay about independence day in end of a chapter in our collective American Muslim history, and perhaps now, in earnest, we can all look together toward The Third Resurrection. May God mend our broken hearts, lift our spirits, purify our souls, heal the rifts between our communities, unify our aims, remove our obstacles, defeat our enemies, and douglas thesis, bless and of the trade, accept our humble offerings and service. © 2008 Azhar Usman | 10 Ramadan 1429 | 11 September 2008. Azhar Usman is a Chicago-based, full-time standup comedian. He is frederick douglas co-founder of “Allah Made Me Funny—The Official Muslim Comedy Tour,” which has toured extensively all over the world.

He is frequently interviewed, profiled, and quoted in the press, and he is an essay advisor to the Inner-city Muslim Action Network’s Arts and Culture programs. Mr. Usman is also a co-founding board member of The Nawawi Foundation, a non-profit American Muslim research institution. He considers himself a citizen of the world and holds degrees from the University of douglas thesis essays Illinois at essay Chicago and the University of douglas thesis Minnesota Law School. Born and essay day in english, raised in Chicago , his parents originally hail from Bihar, India.

DISCLAIMER: The views and emotions expressed in douglas thesis essays, this essay are those of the author and are not necessarily held, advocated, or even endorsed by any of the essay about day in english institutions with which he may be affiliated.

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Is this a good thesis on Frederick Douglass for my research paper

A bar chart – organising your answer. Much of the difficulty in academic IELTS part 1 is knowing how to organise your answer. This post shows you one way to do this when the diagram is frederick douglas a bar chart. I talk about world is my family, paragraphs, but what you really need to understand is that this is a visual task. You need to frederick douglas thesis essays, be write so that someone else can #8220;see#8221; the diagram. This post shows you one to ideas, organise your task 1 with a step-by-step guide and frederick, has the added bonus of an interactive quiz on comparison language.

The key skill is to is my family essay, make sure that you write in organised paragraphs just as you would in frederick douglas thesis essays an essay. On Abolition Of The Slave Trade! This is so important because it will not just improve your coherence and cohesion band scores, but it will also make the frederick thesis, report easier to write. To do this, we need to identify key features that will make the topics of the paragraphs. When we have done that, we can look for the details that explain those features. Normally, they are obvious.

Never ignore the thesis, obvious. Look at the bar chart below and what do you see? What you should see is this: 2 sets of lines (one red and one blue) some lines are longer than others. Those are your key features that you must highlight in your report as paragraph topics. Everything else is detail. Tip: Think visually . Look for the obvious and frederick douglas thesis essays, ignore any writing when you first look at a chart. Close your eyes . What do you remember? It#8217;s easy to be confused by detail. What are supporting details? Let#8217;s now look at the complete chart.

We now see what the 2 key features that need to be reported are. Remember these will be the topics of our 2 content paragraphs : the distinction between men and world, women (the blue lines and the red lines) how certain purposes of travel are more common than others (how long the lines are) Looking at the blue and red lines this is what I see and needs to be included: little or no difference in #8220;walking#8221; #8220;holidays#8221; and #8220;personal business#8221; more men in #8220;education#8221;, #8220;entertainment#8221; and #8220;commuting#8221; more women in #8220;school run#8221;, #8220;visiting friends#8221; and #8220;shopping#8221; many more women in #8220;school run#8221; (5% difference) many more men in #8220;commuting#8221; (8% difference) This is fairly straightforward as all you need to do is arrange the different categories into an order showing the most common and least common purposes. commuting and shopping much the frederick, most common (around 20% average) visiting friends and school run both around 15% average personal business just under 10% average sport/entertainment around 7% average just more than education at 6% least common is walking and holidays at around 3% each. Note the short on hard work always pays, % figures here are averages of the male/female numbers. Tip: when you have many different categories, it is frederick douglas thesis a good idea to group them together under a few headings. There are, of essay ideas, course, many possible answers to this task. Here is one solution.

This bar chart shows the different reasons for making journeys in the UK in 2006 and frederick, how males and females differed in this. It is immediately apparent that the most common purposes for travelling were commuting and shopping, both being around 20 per ninety theses cent of trips. The next most common reasons were visiting friends and doing the school run at 15%, closely followed by personal business at around 10%. Travelling for douglas thesis essays, sport and entertainment (7%) was only short essay work, just more common than journeys for frederick, educational purposes (6%). Finally, the fewest number of rules phd thesis, trips were travelling for holidays and frederick douglas thesis, walking, both of which accounted for around 3 per cent of essay, all journeys. Frederick Douglas! Typically, there were few major differences between males and females.

In holidays, personal business and walking both sexes took approximately the on hard work, same amount of journeys, while slightly more men travelled for educational purposes and more women visited friends. Frederick Essays! Notably, almost twice as many men as women travelled for entertainment reasons and, likewise, around 7% more men commuted to work. The two areas in which women travelled significantly more than men were shopping and the school run. Test your comparison vocabulary/grammar. Short Work! In this form of writing comparisons are crucial. Indeed, they are perhaps the most important grammar item in academic task 1. So why not test yourself with this exercise? See if you can re-use the comparison language from my example. Frederick Douglas Thesis! Tip: try to vary the language you use to rules for writing phd thesis, make comparisons.

One way to frederick douglas, do this is use adverbs such as #8220;significantly#8221; Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 22 Responses to A bar chart – organising your answer. i found the task really greatly done, however, i have a querie. For what i have been reading, you always say that we should not try to put all the essay about english, data in our writing and here, you actualy did that#8230;..

So in this model of frederick, answer there is no such a thing as a conclusion? Hi, just a question. I enrolled in a review center here in the Philippines, and they told us that we cannot use the ideas, word #8220;how#8221;in our introduction Because I noticed that you commonly used the word in essays your introduction. By the way, an outstanding site for IELTS, I must say! And I regret that I only learned about this site just today #128577; I am always suspicious of advice that says you should never do something but all teachers have their own preferences.

The question you need to answer is #8220;Does it work?#8221; i#8217;m really greatfull i found this site, even 2 weeks before my examination. Is there sth about family essay, flow charts? I think it has completely different demands. I#8217;m so worried about time management in writing. I#8217;ll definitely try your tips. I have a question maybe It seems stupid, :S. how I can know that % figures are percentages or averages ? Thank u teacher, your lessons are helpful ! % is douglas thesis simply the symbol for independence day in, percentage.

The general rule is you need to read the title for the chart/graph to understand what the figures relate to. If the thesis essays, title reads the #8220;The average number of people who bought a television#8221;, then you know that the figures relate to averages. Essay Independence! I hope that this does not confuse you but it is frederick douglas possible that the for writing, numbers you see are percentages, but those percentages are average figures. Thank you teacher It#8217;s became clear to me now #128512; I have another question , can we use the word #8221; proportion #8221; instead of #8221; percentage #8221; in this type to thesis essays, avoid repeating the world essay, word “percentage”.? I hope I do not annoy with my questions, Indeed yes. #8220;Proportion#8221; is frederick douglas thesis essays a key task 1 word. Keep on asking questions. I got the acceptance score #128512; thank you teacher , really your website help me alot #128512; Thanks for essay on abolition slave trade, your help I finally reached 7, it would not have been possible without your site. Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! Thank you for the wonderful website!

The test at essay thesis ideas all isn#8217;t too bad for me, but I just can#8217;t seem to get this part right. No matter how many times I#8217;ve tried to write a good essay on a graph/chart, I just couldn#8217;t do it. I get stuck from the flow of essays, information, I can see trends, but too many! If I try to start with one of them, then I find myself missing the short essay work, others. Frederick Douglas Thesis! Eventually, I#8217;m left with a poor written piece of nothing #128577; The first essay is really holding me back on my study to the test. Short Essay On Hard Work! What can I do to improve? How can I be knocked out of the #8220;information shock#8221; I#8217;m getting everytime I face the frederick douglas thesis essays, graphs/charts essay assignment?

It#8217;s not easy. I#8217;m hoping to publish more on this soon. Hope that helps. sir you have simplyfied so much that every body is able to understand.thanks. Sir, I really appreciate what you have done, this website is just fantastic for learning IELTS. it#8217;s a pleasure to get a guidance frm you#8230;..this site is simply the best#8230; the main thing is wen v study we neva feel of endurance#8230;..great work . Rules Phd Thesis! not comments at all only compliments. The site is essays very helpfull!!But i can not view the pictures.Is there a temporary technical problem ? Yes, it was i apologise. I think I have everything sorted out now, Please let me know if you have any further problems. I find this website exceptional great. There are many websites, books to teach IELTS out is my essay there but this site is very different. It teaches me to become a better IELTS scorer and all of what you teach are very practical.

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Is this a good thesis on Frederick Douglass for my research paper

Essay: Overview of sickle cell disease. SCD is one of the frederick thesis essays most common genetic conditions of the blood characterized by short essay on hard work pays chronic hemolysis and acute, potentially life-threatening complications. [2] It includes SCA (HbSS), sickle cell’hemoglobin C disease, sickle beta thalassemia, and others. Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! [2,32] This chronic and possibly quite disabling condition mostly affects persons with African, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian ancestry. World Is My! [2, 32] According to the most recent statistics, it was estimated that about a quarter million children born with SCD yearly all over the globe. [1] Also, the prevalence of SCD been reported to be around 60,000 in frederick essays, the U.S. and phd thesis, 10,000 in the United Kingdome. [1] The results of genetic analyses discovered five major sickle haplotypes; Senegal, Benin, Bantu (also called CAR), Cameroon, and the Arab-Indian haplotype. [6] However, SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder and two identical sickle hemoglobin (HbS) alleles (also called hemoglobin SS disease, or SCA) are usually found. [1,2,32] However, occasionally patients may carry 2 dissimilar alleles, i.e. HbS and another hemoglobin mutation such as sickle hemoglobin C (HbC) disease or beta thalassemia (Table 1). [1,2] As result of that, in the individuals with SCD, hemoglobin S will have the highest proportion among the different types of hemoglobin. In contrast to the normal hemoglobin, hemoglobin S polymerizes in case of deoxygenation causing the change of the erythrocytes shape into sickle-like shape. Moreover, the douglas thesis essays young red blood cells are more adhesive to venular endothelium and leukocytes, leading to world essay VOCs (painful crises) and ischemia, eventually. [1,32] The spleen is one of the frequently damaged organs because of the recurrent splenic infarction, which will consequently increase the rate of infections in those patients. [1] However, vaso-occlusion is only one of several mechanisms causing chronic organ damage. [1] Table 1:Description of SCD genotypes. [6] VOCs is a distinctive feature for SCD.

At the time of the vaso-occlusive attack, persons with SCD suffer from unpredictable sever intermittent pain which can occur in the chest, abdomen, or the bones and require hospitalization. [1,2,33] Furthermore, these episodes can be exacerbated by change in weather, stress, infections, or strenuous physical activities. [33] Another key feature of this disease is the acute chest syndrome which is characterized by the presence of new pulmonary infiltrate and 1 or more of the frederick following; cough, tachypnea, dyspnea, or fever. [2] Other medical manifestations of SCD include anemia, aplastic crisis (severe anemia), cholelithiasis, splenomegaly or splenic sequestration. [2] SCD is one of the most prevalent diseases detected at the early stages of life. [1] Despite that reviewing the peripheral smear can give a rapid diagnosis to SCD, confirmation must be done by hemoglobin electrophoresis. [2,34] Additional tests include complete blood count (CBC) and reticulocyte count, urinalysis, and chest x-ray can be done accordingly. [2] In general, the management of the sickle cell crisis is short supportive therapy, which include analgesics and essays, adequate hydration. [1,33] In addition, antibiotics can be added if infection was suspected and blood transfusion may be indicated in case of severe anemia. [1] Also, patients with acute chest syndrome can be managed by oxygen, antibiotics, bronchodilators and transfusions. [1] On the other hand, surgical intervention can be indicated in some cases such as splenic sequestration. [2] However, clinical trials found that in adults with ‘ 3 painful crises/year, hydroxyurea may be very helpful. Hydroxyurea acts by elevating the level of HbF, which will eventually leads to decrease in the sickle cell crises. [35] Additionally, it’s recommended to vaccinate all of the SCD sufferer with pneumococcal vaccine, haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, and annual influenza vaccine. [1] Finally, the use of hematopoietic cell transplantation as curative option is still evolving and data about its efficacy are limited.[36] SCD patients experience a very wide spectrum of symptoms and complications. Slave Trade! The complications could be acute such as osteomyelitis, or chronic such pulmonary hypertensions and frederick douglas, others. [1,2] Therefore, they have a shorter life span than the general population. Based on a study conducted in essay work, Jamaica, the median survival was 53 years for males and 58.5 years for females. [37] In fact, this is totally depend on the individual phenotype; in frederick douglas thesis, other words, patients with severe phenotype has a poor survival and vice versa. [1] The cognitive function was investigated on a cross sectional study conducted on adults from Jamaica [n=149] and compared with normal controls [n=47] from the community and the results significantly indicated that persons with SCD had a poorer neurocognitive function compared to essay thesis ideas the general population. Frederick! [38] In addition, the Pain in Sickle Cell Epidemiology Study (PiSCES) on the other hand concluded that the comorbidity of depression and anxiety might be associated with more pain in patients with SCD. [22] SCD patients create a great burden on the health system. In the U.S., a historical cohort of SCD-related data from eight states showed that SCD is correlated with high rate of acute care encounter and rules, rehospitalization. [39] Another prospective cohort done in the U.S. found that 50% of hospital admissions because of VOCs were readmitted within 30 days after discharge. [40] Between 1989-1993, the total annual cost of hospitalizations was 475 million dollar (in 1996 dollars) [4]

The burden of SCD can be reduced by lowering the number of high-risk marriages. Therefore, several guidelines has been developed by different countries in order to suppress the spread of the disease .The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines, as an example, recommended that individual with high risk must be offered screening, and couples with risk to frederick have a diseased child must be offered genetic counseling. [41] Similar recommendations can be also seen in the British as well as in the Canadian guidelines. [42,43] Sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia. SCD was first described in Saudi Arabia at 1963 in the Eastern province. [44] Afterward, several screening studies have been followed in different areas of the kingdome. [45-48] Initially, three major foci for essay on abolition slave trade, HbS gene and other genetic anomalies were recognized. Furthermore, in 1980s, a comprehensive national screening program discovered a difference in the frequency of HbS gene in different parts of the country. [45,47,49,50,51] Studies were also done to understand the natural history of SCD, and revealed two major forms of the frederick douglas thesis disease: a mild form and a severe form. Essay! The milder form is commonly noticed in douglas, the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Thesis Ideas! According to the ??-globin gene haplotypes reports, patients from the Eastern region with the milder form has been found to have the douglas thesis essays Saudi-Indian haplotype, while the Benin haplotype was found in the Western province with a severe form of the disease. [52] Table 2: phenotypes of SCD in short work always pays, Saudi Arabia (Eastern vs Western). [6] SCD is highly prevalent in the Eastern region as well as the Southwestern region of frederick thesis essays, Saudi Arabia. [5,6] However, there is no solid data about the true prevalence of day in english, SCD in Saudi Arabia.

It was estimated that the prevalence of douglas thesis, sickle-cell trait falls between 2% to world 27%, while the prevalence of SCD was up to 2.6% in some regions. Frederick Douglas! [6] Furthermore, the highest prevalence was found in the Eastern province. Independence! Most of thesis essays, these information were collected from the premarital screening program, which undervalue the true rate of the short essay always pays disease. Frederick Thesis Essays! [6] To illustrate, based on thesis newborn screening program, the prevalence in the Eastern province was 21% for sickle cell trait and 2.6% for SCD. Douglas Thesis! Also, the essay thesis ideas prevalence of SCD in the Eastern province was estimated by the premarital screening program, which underestimated the real prevalence of SCD (nearly 17% for sickle cell trait and 1.2% for thesis essays, SCD). [46,53] Therefore, the newborn screening should be used to identify the true rate of the disease in Saudi Arabia. The most recent reports about the effectiveness of the about independence english premarital screening program found a remarkable decrease in the high-risk marriages and essays, increase in the voluntary cancellations. Five! [7] This demonstrates a very successful example for primary prevention. Douglas Essays! On the other hand, adding the neonatal diagnosis permits the application of a certain prophylactic measures (e.g. Of The Trade! parents education). Douglas Thesis Essays! This is can lead to a better quality of life. [6] As stated previously, there are two major phenotype in Saudi Arabia; the mild (benign) phenotype is usually seen in the Eastern patients and the sever phenotype in Western patients. Unlike the Western patients, alpha thalassemia coinheritance is more common in the Eastern patients .The mild type is also characterized by higher risk to develop avascular necrosis of the femoral head and late persistent splenomegaly. Meanwhile, acute chest syndrome and the recurrence of essay, acute chest syndrome are markedly higher in the West than in East. VOCs occur equally in the two types, despite it takes place later on life in the Eastern patients. [6] Table 2 summarizes the features of the two types. SCD mortality data are so limited in Saudi Arabia.

A study done in douglas thesis, the Eastern province displays 73% deaths happen below 30 years. Moreover, the leading cause of death was acute chest syndrome followed by infections. Family Essay! [8] Depression: epidemiology and burden. Depression is a psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, reduced positive affect, and loss of interest in the usual activities. Frederick Douglas! Major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and minor depressive disorder are some of numerous depression subtypes reported in the literature. [54] The diagnosis of each subclass is on abolition trade based on douglas thesis essays the presence of certain depressive symptoms over essay thesis ideas, a period of essays, time. For instance, According to thesis the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria, the persistence of five or more of specific depressive symptoms for at least two consecutive weeks is required for diagnosing major depressive disorder. Frederick Douglas! [55] The current evidence showed that the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for the treatment of depression is more effective than the use of a single approach alone. [56]

The prevalence of depression is greater in females than males, and in younger than older adults. [57,58] In addition, the frequency of depression increases with chronic conditions like stroke, Parkinson disease, heart diseases, cancers, and autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as Systematic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). [59-63] On the other hand, the concurrent existence of untreated or poorly treated major depression has been shown to have a substantial impact on the morbidity and essay thesis ideas, mortality for a several medical conditions. [64-66] Depression is highly distributed around the globe and the rates seem to be increasing. [67] As per the World Health Organization (WHO) report, 121 million individuals worldwide have depression. [68] Another survey conducted in ten countries showed that the lifetime prevalence of major depression was from frederick douglas thesis 3%-17%. [67] In the U.S. Short Essay On Hard Work! , major depressive disorder is common among adults. Furthermore, in 2006 and frederick thesis essays, 2008, the estimated prevalence of depression was 9% among 235,067 adults from 45 states. Is My! [69] Also, the lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder in U.S. adults is 17%. [67] Similarly in Europe the estimated prevalence of depression was 8.5%. [70] However, in Pakistan the frederick overall prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder was about essay about independence english 34 %. Douglas Thesis Essays! [71] Additionally, Qatar has a prevalence of 27.8%. [72] Therefore, depression is short essay a common issue in several countries. Locally in frederick, Saudi Arabia, data about the prevalence of depression in thesis, the general population is not available now. However, various regional studies with different study populations showed different prevalence rates. [73-75] Three distinct studies were included in a systematic review and frederick douglas, meta-analysis conducted by Al Ibrahim et al. and the overall prevalence of depression was 41%. [73] In Taif, a study was done on 490 secondary school students found that one third of the sample suffered from depression. [74] Another study conducted on primary health care patients [n= 280] and the results displayed a prevalence rate of essay on abolition, 12%. Frederick! [75] A recent cross sectional study was conducted in Riyadh region at three big primary health care centers [n= 477] and nearly half of the sample was depressed. [76] The risk of independence day in, suicide increased with depression. [77] Based on frederick thesis the WHO report, its predicated by 2020 that depression will be responsible for more lost disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) than all other disease, except for coronary heart disease (i.e. depression will be the essay about independence second leading cause of disability worldwide). Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! At present, depression is the second leading cause of independence, DALYs lost worldwide in the age 15’44 years for thesis, both males and females combined. [68] Furthermore, depression results in huge economic burden, causing the loss of billions of of the slave, dollars in the U.S. only. [78] In the Arab world, a recent study showed that major depressive disorder was leading cause of frederick douglas thesis essays, years of life lived with disability (YLDs) in 1990, 2005, and essay on abolition, 2010. In addition, the results of the former study demonstrated that the DALYs from depression have been increased since 1990. [79] In Saudi Arabia, another recent paper showed that major depressive disorder was the leading cause of frederick thesis essays, DALYs in female in 2010. [80] Therefore, awareness and screening high-risk group is essay on hard work pays crucial. Screening recommendations differ from country to frederick douglas essays another. While the Canadian guidelines were against the routine screening, the guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) propose targeted screening for individuals at high risk of developing depression, such as those with past history of about independence day in english, depression, and chronic medical conditions (e.g. diabetes, coronary heart disease, and others). [54,81] Additionally, NICE recommended the use of the douglas thesis essays Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) for suspected cases.

Despite the alarming rates of depression in Saudi Arabia, there is limited data about the five theses quizlet rate of depression in the general population. Frederick Thesis Essays! There is no information about the cost of essay ideas, treatment of frederick douglas thesis essays, depression and the benefit of screening programs. Moreover, there is no particular protocol for screening depression. [76] Therefore, efforts must be made by the Saudi Ministry of world, Health to fill this knowledge gap. Sickle cell disease and depression in adults. Similar to other chronic diseases, psychiatric difficulties and depression are common in douglas, SCD. This can be contributed to many factors including; the disease chronicity, physical symptoms, the social stressors and others. Thesis! In general, the rates of thesis, depression in SCD range between 18% to 44%. Essay Thesis! [18-30,82] One of the early studies to explore this association, a paper reporting a three cases that were managed with antidepressant and frederick thesis essays, family therapy, and proposed that depression occurs more common than previously anticipated. [30] Afterward, 89 patients with SCA was examined using the Chronic Illness Problem Inventory (CIPI) by Barrett et al. and found depression to be a common issue among these patients. [17] In contrast to the previous studies, the Hamilton rating scale has been employed to assess depression in 30 patients with SCA and 31 sickle cell traits and essay, the finding was indicting no association between SCA and depression in all of the patients. [28] However, Molock and Belgrave review at frederick thesis 1994 stated that depression is far common in SCD patients than among controls. [29]

Over years, different instruments have been used to evaluate depression in SCD. [5,18-30] Frankfurter Befindlichkeitskala (FBS) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were the tools in world family essay, one of the studies to interview 170 adults with SCD and advised the health care providers to ask their patients about their social life and to provide them with psychiatric referral. [16] In a different study the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire and the Leeds Self-Assessment for depression and anxiety were applied on 38 SCA patients and matched controls and found 3 folds increase in the anxiety and depressive symptoms in SCA patients compared to the controls. [15] Wilson Schaeffer et al. assessed 440 adults’ patients using the Center For Epidemiologic Studies ‘Depression scale (CES-D) and reported a prevalence rate of frederick douglas thesis essays, 18%. [82] A convenience sample of 27 male and 23 female was examined by thesis ideas the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in order to assess the prevalence of depression in SCD patients, and the results were indicative of douglas thesis, a high rate of depression among SCD patients compared to the general population. [25] Similarly, depression was higher than the general population found in a cross sectional study used the BDI fast screen in ninety, 232 African American adults with SCD. [24] One hundred and two patients with SCD and 103 African American individual without SCD were tested using the 10-item Center For Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) to evaluate the relationship between elevated depressive symptoms and the clinical severity of SCD and concluded that the observed association is frederick douglas essays merely due to the adverse economic conditions correlated with SCD. [83] Although self-reporting is not a preferable strategy while conducting a research, a recent survey was conducted in 30 male and 37 female with SCD to evaluate the self-reported rates of depression and the results show that 36% of the sample self-reported depression while 22% had mild depression by the BDI. [21] The association between pain and depressive symptoms has been addressed in some studies. The results of the pain in sickle cell epidemiology study, which is a prospective cohort designed mainly to estimate the prevalence of depression on 308 SCD adults, showed that approximately 27% were depressed and suggested that depression and anxiety predicted more daily pain in SCD patients. [22] In 2010, a Bahraini prevalence study enrolled 138 SCA with VOCs and 105 SCA without VOCs and administrated Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the results suggested a positive correlation between painful crises and anxiety disorder. [19] Worldwide, various studies explored the relationship of essay on abolition of the slave trade, depression and SCD. [18-30,82] In Africa, for example, two studies examined this topic. [11,20] A large study conducted in frederick douglas thesis essays, Nigeria to investigate the impact of SCD in 408 participants reported that about 50% of the sample had depressive feelings. [11] One more international study took place in Jamaica aims to estimate the prevalence of depression in SCD patients [n=277] and theses quizlet, controls [n=65] and depression rate was 21.6% in SCD patients and frederick, 9% in the controls. [20] However, no study was published addressing this issue in the Middle East aside from the formerly described Bahraini study. [19] The results of above-mentioned studies were not conclusive. Furthermore, the possible shortcomings include; their limited number, small sample size, variable tools, retrospective design, and the sample representativeness. However, most of the studies that found a positive association recommended psychiatric evaluation and intervention for those patients and is my family essay, asked for further research. [33] Search our thousands of frederick thesis essays, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?

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chinese model essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for thesis essays more than a quarter of essay work, a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of thesis, photographs with works by essay day in, seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years.

The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in frederick essays, the late 1970s and essay, early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the frederick thesis, photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon essay thesis, his return to frederick the city, he could scrutinize the essay on hard work, images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by douglas thesis essays, the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the essay, conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the thesis essays, mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Liu’s works.

The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to quizlet a unique episode in thesis, Chinese history. Master of the essay trade, House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an frederick essays, apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the essay english, central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the essays, center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of essay about day in english, guests.

The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Essays! Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in essay thesis, an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the frederick douglas, concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on thesis, contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. Frederick Douglas Thesis! The unique approach of the short always pays, Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Frederick Douglas Thesis! Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and essay on abolition of the, then within that format he records every visual detail of douglas, their bodily presence and their surroundings.

It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the five, same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by frederick douglas thesis, the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the on abolition, photographs is that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the daily lives of frederick thesis essays, Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by is my family essay, the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure.

from their land and their integration into essay independence day in english city life. Since the 1980s, because of essays, radical changes in China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by essay, 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the frederick douglas thesis essays, prospects for life and work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon ninety, the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of frederick douglas essays, Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers.

The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for about independence identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of China’s urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the frederick douglas essays, speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of rules for writing, peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Frederick Douglas Thesis Essays! Beginning in the early 1990s, the ninety five quizlet, Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of thesis essays, living on the eve of radical upheavals in five theses quizlet, Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.

For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from thesis above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for is my family essay neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of frederick thesis, sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description.

In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to about independence day in english lose themselves in times that have passed. Douglas Thesis Essays! From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of essay on abolition of the slave trade, a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at frederick thesis essays the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of ninety five, No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to essays street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of rules for writing phd thesis, what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and frederick douglas thesis, personal viewpoint. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the.

same frame to provoke associations regarding the rules for writing phd thesis, passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is essays, not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. Slave! By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.

New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and douglas, urban life and ninety theses quizlet, development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. Essays! The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and essay of the slave, semi-unemployed.

According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the frederick, social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in essay on abolition of the slave, China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in thesis, 1997 and is, according to independence day in english him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers.

His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of douglas thesis, Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of five quizlet, Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of frederick douglas thesis essays, perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon day in english, the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for thesis essays an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in slave, industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. Frederick Douglas! These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the of the slave, complexities of the historical moment. Thesis! By weaving together subliminal settings and is my family essay, intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation.

From the douglas essays, documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the about, growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in douglas, Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the essay thesis ideas, beginning of a process in douglas essays, which Chinese photography is emerging from the essay independence day in, constraints of state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.