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Honors Thesis: Sickle Cell - Oregon State University

Sickle cell thesis

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origin of man essay THE ORIGIN OF MAN. [This is a translation by A. R. Caponigri of El origen del hombre, which appeared in Revista de Occidente , Ano. Thesis! II, 2a er. Essay About! No. 17 (August, 1964), p. 146-173. Caponigri's translation was published in a book which he edited, Contemporary Spanish Philosophy , University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, Indiana, 1967, p. 42-75.

Unrestricted rights to this translation have been granted to the Xavier Zubiri Foundation of North America. Readers may freely use this material if sources (University of Notre Dame Press, Xavier Zubiri Foundation of North America) are credited. Page numbers from the book are shown in green brackets. Cell! Readers are advised that some of the specific anthropological data utilized by Zubiri in this essay have been superceded by new discoveries; however, the philosophical points remain intact.] [43] The problem of the origin of man was almost exclusively a theological one until the end of the nineteenth century. Since then, surprisingly, the problem has entered a new phase, the essay phase of positive science. Human paleontology and prehistory have discovered a series of impressive facts whose volume and thesis quality must be considered transcendental, since these scientific facts lead to the idea that the origin of man is evolutional: the human phylum has its evolutionary origin in other animal phyla; and within the human phylum, humanity has adopted genetically and dissertation of david carawiay evolutionally distinct forms until it has arrived at present-day man, the only one until now with which philosophy and theology have concerned themselves. Human evolution is certainly a subject which belongs to thesis positive science. Military Contests! Though a question raised by facts, it is nevertheless one which affects philosophy and cell thesis theology. Leaving aside, for the moment, the theological aspect of the question, the idea of the evolutionary origin of our humanity, though it is a scientific idea, is still an idea, which, like many others, is on the borderline of both science and philosophy. These [44] ideas constitute borderline problems, two-sided problems.

And inasmuch as they are two-sided, they should be considered philosophically. Speaking philosophically, what does the evolutionary origin of our humanity mean? In the somatic, morphological order there is a strict evolution from homework kids, animal to man. The mechanisms, scope, and character of cell, this evolution might be argued, and are argued. But there undeniably exists a morphological evolution which places man in the line of the anthropomorphous primates, concretely speaking, at homework kids, the division between the Pongidae and Hominidae. The anthropomorphous Pongidae lead to the great apes: the sickle cell chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. Of David Carawiay! Starting from the same point of reference, the anthropomorphos Hominidae follow a different line of evolution. Paleontologists use the term hominids for all the antbropoids which form a part of the phylum to which man belongs. They do so because there have been anthropomorphous members of this phylum which were not yet human but infrahuman (though not apes, as the Pongidae are). These not-yet hominized hominids are the direct somatic ancestors of man. Thesis! Since paleontology does not yet possess enough fossil remains, it cannot describe with satisfactory precision either the ways in which the hominids proliferated or the of david precise point of sickle, hominization.

However, this undeniable somatic evolution leaves untouched another fact that must be kept in mind and integrated with evolution if we are to explain the phenomenon of humanity completely: the essential irreducibility of the intellective dimension of man to military all his sensory animal dimensions. An animal, being merely sentient, always and only reacts to stimuli. There can be, and cell there are, complexes of stimuli structured as units, often endowed with the character of a sign, and an animal selects from them according to their attunement with the homework kids tonic states it feels. Still, it is always a case of mere stimuli. In contrast to thesis this, man with his intelligence, [45] responds to realities. I have always maintained that intelligence is, not the capacity for abstract thought, but the capacity that man has to perceive things and deal with them as realities. Between mere stimulus and reality there is not a difference in degree but in essence. What we are accustomed to call, improperly, animal intelligence is the refinement of the animal's capacity to move among stimuli in rhythm, a very diversified and fruitful way, but always on the level of giving an adequate response to the situation with which the sickle stimuli present it; and this is why it is not, properly speaking, intelligence.

In contrast, man does not always respond to things as stimuli, he also responds to them as realities. The richness of man's response is of david carawiay, of an sickle cell, order essentially distinct from that of an animal's. This is descriptive, why his life transcends animal life, and the evolutional lines of man and animal are radically distinct ones which follow divergent directions. An animal, for example, may be completely classified; man cannot. For psychobiological reasons, man is the sickle cell only animal that is adaptable to all the climates of the universe, that tolerates the most diverse diets. But this is not all. Man is the only animal that is not imprisoned in a specifically determined medium but is essay healthy habits, constitutively open to the undefined horizon of the real world. While the animal only sickle, resolves situations and makes small predispositions, man transcends his actual situation and produces artifacts that are not only made ad hoc for a determined situation but are also situated in the reality of things, in what these things are of about, themselves. Thus, he constructs artifacts he has no need of in the present situation against the time when he might have need of them. He handles things as realities.

In a word, while the sickle cell thesis animal only settles his life, man projects his life. This is why man's industry is not found to be fixed or to be mere repetition; rather it denotes an innovation, the product of an invention, of a forward-moving, progressive creation. Essay! Precisely where the cell thesis remains of tools allow the discovery of traces of innovation and creation, prehistory interprets them as rudimentary human characteristics. Such is the case with the pebble culture of essays on beaches, Australopithecus, which we will speak of later. [46] This irreducibility does not imply a break, a discontinuity, between animal and cell human life. Completely the contrary. If the rhythm of life essay distinction between mere sensation and sickle cell thesis intelligence which I have just proposed is accepted, it is true that the animal reacts to mere stimuli and descriptive essays that man responds to realities. But in his individual life as well as in his development as a species, the first form of reality which man apprehends is that of his own stimuli.

He perceives them not as mere stimuli but as real stimuli, as stimulating realities, so much so that the first function of intelligence is purely biological. It consists in finding an adequate response to, real stimuli. Sickle Thesis! This fact alone proves that the further we descend toward the beginnings of life in both individual and species, the contests more subtle the distinction between mere stimulus and real stimulus becomes until it seems to sickle thesis disappear-and that is exactly what proves there is no break between animal life and contests life which is properly human. It is abundantly clear that there is no such break in individual life any more than there is in sickle, the zoological scale. The life of the first beings with somatic, and perhaps psychic, traces of humanity, the Australopithecids, approaches very closely the life of other anthropoids. This is why it is so difficult, and at times impossible, to know if a hominid fossil does or does not represent a hominized hominid. Since the statement human phylum is constituted by an. Sickle Cell! intelligence, we find in it a true and strict genetic evolution due above all to the evolution of the somatic structures but also to the evolution of a type of dissertation of david, intelligence expressed in industries characterized by an almost perfect evolutionary unity. This means that what we have been accustomed until now to call Man in the singular, in reality includes types of humanity that are different somatically and sickle thesis industrially, that is, somatically and intellectively, produced by a true, genetic, intrahuman evolution. It is a question, not of men who are different only in their type of life, but of essay about healthy habits, structurally distinct types, in cell, regard to both their morphology and their [47] mental structures. From among the most outstanding and well-known facts, let us note only some so as to add concreteness to about habits our ideas.

1. From the beginnings of the early Quaternary (the Villafranchian) almost two million years ago, the Australopithecine hominids appeared. They seem to be the first beings who by then possessed traces of rudimentary human characteristics. The oldest relic known is the Chad skull. Later there is, on the one hand, the African group of Australopithecus, with its different varieties, and, on the other hand, Australopithecus of Java. These groups spread until well into the Middle Quaternary (Australopithecus Telanthropus and Australopithecus of sickle cell, Palestine). These, with the ones from Java, are the closest transition to the following type. Together they constitute a quite homogeneous group. Except for later variations, they have short stature and an appearance similar to of david carawiay that of the Pongidae: a receding forehead and concave face. But their premolars are exactly of the human type and cell completely distinct from those of the Pongidae. They are almost perfectly biped and erect; their pelvis is of david, already of the cell thesis human type. This has left the arms and hands free to grasp and shape tools.

On the other hand, they have an elongated and homework kids shallow brain: a cranial volume of 500 to 700 cc., notably inferior to that of later men but high in relation to the Pongidae and relative to their stature. Some of the sickle thesis skulls, as the Chad skull, present noticeable differences. Let us take, under the heading of military essay contests, information, the very recent discovery by Leakey in East Africa (1963-1964) of a fossil dating from the beginning of the Quaternary which he has named Homo habilis. Some of its structures are intermediary between those of Australopithecus and those of the man who followed; others are more closely related to those of Homo sapiens. According to sickle cell thesis this idea, Homo habilis would be a direct ancestor of later man, while Australopithecus would constitute a collateral branch of unhominized hominids. To Homo habilis would belong the essay contests Chad skull, Australopithecus of Palestine, as well as Telanthropus (who, then, should not be called Australopithecine), [48] and perhaps the cell enigmatic Kanam jaw. All of this needs more careful and minute study before it can be admitted. Australopithecus made rudimentary axes, if you could so call his sharpened pebbles (pebble culture).

Considered within an extended temporal perspective, Australopithecus seems to present, according to homework kids some (and to this opinion the majority of researchers today incline), traces of a creative innovation differing from the fixity and repetition characteristic of thesis, instinct and animal imitation. As such they would exhibit a certain intelligence. In this case, the essay contests transmission of these characteristics from some beings to others of the same group would be a first trace of authentic society and cell thesis tradition, that is, a first outline of rudimentary culture. He would be, then, rudimentarily hominized because he would have begun to have perceived things as realities, as things which are of rhythm, themselves. Cell! On the other hand, if one does not admit that there is creative innovation in essay about healthy habits, the industry of sickle cell thesis, Australopithecus, then it would be a case of unhominized hominids who would be, perhaps, either the immediate ancestors of homework kids, man or a collateral branch of hominids that has gradually been extinguished.

In Leakey's opinion, there is a pebble culture that is cell, creative, but its producer is Homo habilis and not Australopithecus (who, he believes, also made tools from pebbles, but without creativeness). 2. At the beginning of the Middle Quaternary half a million years ago, the hominized hominids (whether Australopithecus or Homo habilis) produced by evolution a clearly human type: Arcanthropus, as Weidenreich calls him. The oldest type is represented by the Modjokerto skull. In order of age, Arcanthropus is followed by Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus. The Mauer jaw dates very close to Sinanthropus, perhaps before, and the Montmaurin jaw comes later, preceding the next man. There are more recent relics from East Africa related to certain varieties of rhythm of life essay, Australopithecus. After that appear Atlanthropus of sickle thesis, Ternifine (Algeria) and, lastly, the Casablanca, Rabat, Temara, and Saldanha men. Arcanthropus, then, stems from military, Australopithecus or from sickle thesis, very closely related forms (Homo habilis?), while the [49] Mauer and Montmaurin men, together with the about habits Morocco and Saldanha men, represent the transition to men of a later type.

Arcanthropus has a dentition of the same type as that of Australopithecus. He has a very rudimentary trace of chin, very strong jaws, very large supraorbital ridges, a very thick skull with a strong crest at the occipital foramen, and a less pronounced occipital curvature than that of earlier types. The brain develops upward, from an elongated to a rounded form, its convolutions are still slight but more pronounced than those of Australopithecus; the frontal lobes are larger but still very inferior; there is probably a predominance of the left hemisphere; its average volume is 1,000 cc. Sickle Cell! Arcanthropus already produced very distinctive, two-faced stone implements. He did not know how to light fire, but it seems he knew how to use it or conserve it. He did not bury his dead. But the occipital foramen is artificially enlarged, which seems to indicate that he extracted the brain to empty the skull. Military Contests! Was this an anthropophagic rite or simply, perhaps, for the conservation of the skull as a relic of the dead?

It is difficult to decide. 3. In the remaining part of the Middle Quaternary, about two hundred thousand years ago, there appeared another somatically and mentally different human type: Paleanthropus (Keith). This human type evolved in different phases. The oldest type is that represented by the pre-Neanderthal men (Steinheim, Ehringsdorf, Saccopastore) and the pre-sapiens (Swanscombe and, much later, the Fontchvade man). Then come the classical Neanderthal men, distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and Africa. Sickle! Those from Palestine are, perhaps, pre-sapiens. Lastly come those which mark the transition to military a later type: the Rhodesian man and the Solo man (a descendent of Pithecanthropus).

Their dentition is largely intermediate between that of Arcanthropus and the subsequent man. The older representatives have a less prominent chin (at times almost nonexistent) than that of the more recent ones, a weaker lower jaw than that of Arcanthropus, and concave maxillaries. Cell! The skull takes on a new shape but has a regressively lower vault, a receding and flattened [50] forehead, and very large supraorbital ridges with a greater curvature which at times approaches that of later man. The pre-sapiens has a vertical forehead, almost without brow ridges. The bones are not nearly so thick. The volume of the brain is about 1,425 to 1,700 cc., and remains so in later man. The convolutions are more accentuated, with a greater development upward; the thesis statement or end frontal lobes are more accentuated but in general still poorly developed, far below those of later man. His culture is typical: a lower paleolithic culture.

Some of these men begin to cut typical hand axes that are much more perfect than the previous bifaced ones. Others begin a chipped-stone industry. They live in the open and in caverns. Sickle Thesis! They are nomads; they store goods and hunt. They use fire. They probably painted their bodies somewhat, and some objects might be interpreted as amulets. Essays! It seems they wore trophies during the sickle cell thesis hunt, which perhaps belonged to the ritual of the statement hunt and which might indicate a certain idea of thesis, superior powers.

They buried their dead, surrounding them at homework kids, times with offerings, which denotes a certain idea of survival after death. 4. Only afterwards, in the Late Quaternary, about fifty thousand years ago, did a somatically and mentally different type appear: Neanthropus, often simply called Cro-Magnon man. He is the one who represents, strictly speaking, Homo sapiens. The oldest examples known, until now, are the Kanjera man and, a little later, the Florisbad man, both from thesis, East Africa. This is the human type to which we belong. It has typically modern dentition.

The chin is well formed; the face short and wide, with a high forehead, elongated nose, and almost no brow ridges. Military Essay! The bones of the skull are less and less thick as we proceed from the Upper Paleolithic to thesis the Neolithic period. The brain has definitely acquired its rounded form, is very rich in its convolutions, which are now permanent, and has fully developed frontal lobes. In his first cultural phase (Upper Paleolithic), this man now no longer carves axes; he polishes the essay stone (a flaked-stone industry). Cell! He makes awls and bone needles for sewing. He begins to farm and domesticate animals. He produces admirable rock paintings and small relief work, sunken and raised; statuettes that could [51] be fertility idols (the earth mother) and protector idols; all of which indicates that he clearly shows magico-religious practices denoting a belief in spirits to which he makes offerings. He buries his dead, sometimes constructing small burial monuments. After the last glaciation this man enters into the Neolithic cultural phase.

He polishes stone more finely, works in ceramic, and develops textile arts. Statement Beginning! He constructs huts and sheds and begins shepherding animals. He possesses a clear cult of the dead in that he builds megalithic monuments (domens, menhirs, etc.). He has domestic gods (lares and the like), a god of fertility, and a cult of the bull and of the sun. He begins to use ideographic signs. And he develops an art, very rich in all aspects, at times of a very stylized character. Finally, he enters into a new phase, the sickle cell thesis metal age-not taking into account copper which could have belonged to the Neolithic phase. These four types of men (the first hominized ones, that is, Australopithecus or Homo habilis; Arcanthropus; Paleanthropus; and Neanthropus) are not found stratified, but overlapped, sometimes for long periods. For example, we have already said that certain types of Australopithecus are so close to Arcanthropus in time that it is difficult to classify them in one or the other group, since the former extend into the Middle Quaternary when Arcanthropus is already fully developed. The same is true of of david, Arcanthropus and Paleanthropus. And these latter lived at the same time as Neanthropus.

As each type begins, it is contemporary with the previous type. We do not know, naturally, the social character of the diverse human types, especially of the more ancient ones, and know even less the social adjustment made between men of a previous type and those of a later type. The ethnology of certain present-day primitive peoples, utilized with the utmost prudence, may throw some light on certain aspects of the problem. The succession of human types is not only a succession but a true genetic evolution. The comparison of the morphology of their fossil remains and the character of the fauna surrounding their resting places clearly suggest this. The evolutional continuity of their industries confirms it. Thesis! It is not a case of absolute certainty- [52] science never obtains that-but there is the sufficient force of reasonable conviction. Opinions may differ, and do differ at times, about very important details. This is because it is not a case of the totality of one type being the genetic origin of another type.

Within each type there are forms that are surely collateral branches in the evolution of humanity. This is what occurs in general with Pithecanthropus, but even in this case let us not forget that the Solo man is probably a direct descendent of Pithecanthropus of Java. This is even clearer with Paleanthropus. Homework Kids! The classic Neanderthal men, in general, are only collateral branches, but the sickle thesis pre-Neanderthal men and the pre-sapiens are in the direct genetic line of Neanthropus. The examples could be multiplied. New facts are constantly coming to light that demand a revision of the description of human types and of the precise genetic expression of their evolution. In fact, as we have already noted, paleontology does not yet know precisely how the hominids spread; nor, therefore, does it know the exact point of of david, hominization. For a time it was thought that some form such as Oreopithecus was an example of what the hominids might have been before their hominization. Today, it seems, the investigators are not so firmly convinced. We have also indicated the recent ideas in regard to Homo habilis. In addition, interpretation of the pebble culture is in sickle cell thesis, need of more documentation-not only paleontological but also archeological-concerning the character of the culture and consequently the possible hominization of about healthy habits, its producers.

Finally, the thesis constant discovery of new fossils which are clearly human ones will modify the morphological, geographical, and historical scheme of fossil man and his evolution. Statement Beginning! All this falls under the responsibility of science. Thesis! What remains established is the great fact of the existence of very distinct human types linked by homework kids, a true genetic evolution. And this is the cell one decisive fact in our problem: man as such is not a reality; only his distinct evolutional types are. [53] This granted, what does evolution mean? What are all these distinct types of humanity? Let us say first of all that, scientifically and philosophically speaking, these types are all strictly human; they are true men.

Speaking philosophically, I think man is the intelligent animal, the reality-conscious animal, something essentially distinct from the nonhuman animal which is endowed only military, with mere sensation, that is, with a way of perceiving things and dealing with them as mere stimuli. This intellective dimension is found essentially united, in a primary coherential unity, with definite, structural, somatic intrinsic factors, that is, a certain type of dentition, of locomotive apparatus, of hands free for the seizure and fabrication of tools; a certain type of thesis, cranial configuration and volume; a certain type of shape and functional organization of the brain; and apparatus for articulate phonation; capable of homework kids, being used at certain stages in the form of language. Language, in cell thesis, fact, is a question not only of macroscopic anatomical structures for phonation but of essay habits, functional organization, which is sickle thesis, perhaps achieved only in the more advanced stages of hominization. The specific unity, then, of man is assured: it is the essential unity of homework kids, intelligence and of a determined type of sickle cell, basic somatic structures. Therefore, in all the men of whom we have been speaking there is what I have called a constitutive scheme, transmitted by generation, that is, there is a true genetic phylum. In virtue of this, the structure is, scientifically and philosophically, a strictly specific structure. Reciprocally, the inclusion of an anthropoid in the human phylum constitutes its strict specific unity with man. Dissertation Carawiay! (I have elaborated upon this concept of species in another publication, Sobre la Esencia [Madrid, 1962]). The representatives of all these human types are, then, true men. Upon confirming the innovating and sickle thesis creative character of the industry of Australopithecus, we see that he possesses an intelligence, a true intelligence, no matter how rudimentary, [54] because be apprehends things as realities.

He is a true rudimentary man, as we shall see presently. However, this phyletic, specific unit contains within it great diversity. This diversity refers first of essay contests, all, not to different types of cell, life, but to psychosomatic structural differences. Types of life are different because the descriptive essays on beaches psychosomatic structures that make them possible, and so define them, are different. Arcanthropus and Paleanthropus have different types of life because their structures are different.

What we call diverse Modes of life are differences within an already structurally defined type of sickle cell, life. Among the different arcanthropes and the different paleanthropes, as well as the neanthropes, some individuals may have had, and surely did have, distinct modes of life. But the different modes of life of Arcanthropus are lives of the same type, a type distinct from that of Paleanthropus. The primary difference, then, is a difference of type of life which depends on a difference in psychosomatic structure. This structural difference is not merely individual.

It is something much deeper: a pithecanthrope and military a Neanderthaler differ much more profoundly than two Neanderthalers. That is perfectly clear. But we are not speaking of the quasi-structural difference we indicate by cell thesis, names for varieties and races. These differences, including the racial ones, fall always and only within a definite and already constituted primary unit. There are diverse races of Arcanthropus (for example, today it is considered that Pithecanthropus and Sinanthropus are different races), of Paleanthropus (the different Neanderthal men), of homework kids, Neanthropus (the Cro-Magnon, Grimaldi, and other races in the Upper Paleolithic period). But the sickle thesis difference we are speaking of is a difference between the primary units themselves, the difference that allows us to separate Australopithecus (if hominized), Arcanthropus, Paleanthropus, or Neanthropus. Descriptive Essays! Only within each one of sickle cell, these units can one speak of races or varieties. That this difference between primary units exists is a fact that leaps to one's eyes when one merely reviews the characteristics which, taken together, distinguish them. However, in spite of [55] being structural, this difference is not specific because we are dealing, not with a difference in species, but with a difference within a species. I will return to this point very shortly. It is in this precise sense that I have called each primary structural unit a type.

In each type the unit of the species has a distinct quality. A pithecanthrope and a Neanderthaler or a Cro-Magnon man are not only different men but are men of different human quality, if I may so put it. The quale of their humanity is different. Of Life Essay! And it is different as much in regard to the somatic as to the psychic in their structures. In the first place, each of the types is qualitatively distinct from the others on cell, the level of its somatic structures. The differences of appearance, of descriptive essays, cranial volume, and cell thesis brain development between Australopithecus and Homo sapiens are markedly qualitative. Dissertation Of David! The brain of Arcanthropus is not of the same qualitative type as that of Neanderthal man. There is not the least doubt about this. Human morphology, like that of any living thing, is not constituted by the mere presence of sickle cell, characteristics each one of which is independent from the others. A morphology is the thesis beginning or end expression of a correlative unity between these characteristics and prior to them. In virtue of it these characteristic differences are not accidental.

They are systematic and phyletic differences. This is why for sickle cell the paleontologist there is thesis statement or end, not the least doubt that Homo is a genus which contains various species of men: habilis, erectus, sapiens, etc. They are systematic and phyletic lines within a unique (generic) phylum from which they proceed, at times in branches and not straight lines. Since the cell thesis taxonomic concept of essay habits, species is purely systematic and, as such (as is recognized), somewhat indefinite and cell conventional, it is necessary to complement it with a phyletic consideration. Now, since this phyletic (at least generic) unity undoubtedly exists in humanity (polyphyleticists are an outstanding minority), I prefer not to prejudge here whether the units or systematic branches are or are not rigorously species but, for this reason, to limit myself [56] to calling them qualitatively distinct types, reserving the word species for what the paleontologists call genus.

In this sense, I say there are types of men who are qualitatively distinct in their somatic morphology. Moreover, the differences in the psychic constitution of the military contests human types are also qualitative. Cell! As little as we know of them, the essay healthy habits remains of their culture oblige us to form this conclusion. It is not by chance that some human types do or think things that did not occur to other types, for example, burying their dead or being farmers instead of sickle thesis, mere hunters. The range of possibilities is prescribed by a primary and radical quality of the psychic constitution of each type. There are things which could not have occurred to certain human types, given that these types were of a determined quality. It is not, then, a question of what comes to mind but a question of quality of mental type. And this is above all true of intelligence itself. It is not only that some types of men, for example, the Neanderthal men, are more intelligent than others, for instance, the arcanthropes. It is not a question of more and less but of military contests, some types which have a class, shall we say, of intelligence distinct from that of the others. The intelligence of the Neanderthal man is cell, qualitatively other than that of Pithecanthropus.

Only within each type can one say that some individuals are more or less intelligent than others. There were certainly some Neanderthalers who were more intelligent than others. But the radical difference is the qualitative one. These qualitative differences in dissertation carawiay, psychic constitution could be interpreted in the sense that the psyche of the different human types was substantially distinct in each case. But it is not necessary to enter into this dimension of the problem because the sickle thesis undeniable fact that somatic structures determine the qualitative form of the psyche, the forma animae, is more than sufficient.

And since the somatic structures are of distinct quality, so, inevitably, are the psychic structures. The unity of the psychic and the somatic is, in fact, in my opinion, an essential structural unity and, is, moreover, bilateral. Or End! It is an sickle thesis, idea which I have repeatedly put forward. The psyche and the soma are mutually [57] co-determined, not as potency and act, but as two actual realities. The unity of man is an essential unity but not a substantial one. In virtue of this, the relations in this co-determination vary throughout the course of the thesis statement beginning life of cell, each man. In the germinal plasm it is the somatic structures, the homework kids germinal structures (that is, the progenitors), that determine completely the first mental state and continue determining for some time the other mental states. This occurs in any human individual at whatever level you consider him. It is in this way that the sickle cell forma animae takes on its shape. When the moment arrives at Which the psychosomatic development brings into descriptive, play its properly intellective dimension, it is certain that this dimension determines in good measure the development and the functionality of the somatic structures.

But since these structures initially and cell radically shaped the homework kids quality or form of the psyche, it turns out that even in this dimension the intellective function is already at its roots qualitatively distinct between some human types and others. Cell Thesis! The somatic structures not only permit the use of rhythm, intelligence but also qualitatively shape this use in all the human types, including our own. In this manner, each human type has a unitary psychosomatic structure qualitatively distinct from that of the other types. Between these qualitatively distinct human types there is a true and strict genetic evolution, a psychosomatic evolution. The genetic evolution of the structures, in fact, completely determines the quality of the psyche, of the forma animae . In virtue of sickle, this, the genetic transmission of the thesis statement beginning or end structures determines an evolution in the form or quality of the psychic constitution. Therefore, there is, as I say, a strictly psychosomatic, genetic evolution of the cell thesis human types. The typification of the species is the product of a strict psychosomatic evolution. Once evolution had begun, it was possible, as I have just indicated, that the thesis statement beginning functional organization-for example, that of the brain-might be determined in some sense by the use of intelligence within each type. Thus it has been said more than once that the tool precedes the brain and forms it, that it is not the brain that shapes the tool. Sickle Thesis! This being the case, if these organizations were transmitted, the psychic constitution [58] itself would have been one of the factors in evolution. But in order for this to happen, the functional organization acquired by the use of intelligence would have had to affect the structures of the germinal plasm, if it were to be transmissible.

Whatever was the beginning or end case, this psychosomatic structural unity had its beginnings rudimentarily in Australopithecus and Arcanthropus and gradually perfected itself qualitatively and typically throughout the process of sickle thesis, evolution. Human evolution is above all an evolution of the typical qualities of the psychosomatic unity. What is the meaning, the orientation of this evolution? Is it the passage from pre-men to men? I do not believe so. Essay About! It is sickle cell thesis, undeniable that all of descriptive on beaches, us sense a certain resistance toward calling all these types of humanity men. We are accustomed, by a very old tradition, to defining man as a rational animal, that is, an animal fully endowed with the capacity for abstract thought and for reflection. Sickle Cell Thesis! Such being the case, we resist, with more than enough reason, calling such types as Pithecanthropus, and even more so Australopithecus, men, even though their industry denotes intelligence. But if we force ourselves to essay contests call these beings men, we incline toward considering them rational.

Both tendencies spring from the sickle same conception, that of essays on beaches, man as a rational animal. I think that this conception cannot be defended. Sickle! Man is not a rational animal, but an intelligent animal, that is, a reality-conscious animal. These are two completely distinct things because reason is no more than a special and specialized type of intelligence, and essay about healthy intelligence formally consists, not in the capacity for abstract thought and full conscious reflection, but simply in the capacity to perceive things as realities. Intelligent animal and one rational animal are, then, distinct things.

The latter is only one type of the sickle thesis former. Of David Carawiay! And this is just as true if we consider the human individual of our epoch as if we consider his paleontological evolution. In both aspects and cell thesis dimensions, the intelligent animal is not necessarily a rational animal. The child, only a few weeks after birth, undeniably makes use of his intelligence, but be does not have, until years later, that special use of intelligence [59] which we call the use of reason. On Beaches! From the beginning the child is an intelligent animal, but not a rational animal. Now within the interior evolutionary line of the human species, man has been, from his origins in the Quaternary, an intelligent animal and has made use of his intelligence.

Even the Villafranchian Australopithecus, if he had had a creative culture, would be a rudimentary but true man. The false identification of the intelligent animal with the sickle cell thesis rational animal is the origin of homework kids, many of the doubts about the hominization of Australopithecus, as well as the cell reason why many speak timidly about whether he had intelligence and was only potentially or virtually what would later be man. I think, on the contrary, that if he possessed a creative culture he would have intelligence, in the sense I have stated it, and then we would have to decide to of life call him man, not virtually but formally. What is true is that he would be virtually rational. There is sickle, no reason why we should reserve the word and the concept of man only for the rational animal. All these types of homework kids, men have slowly and cell thesis during many millennia been progressively evolving from their level of intelligent animal to the level of rational animal, whose fullness is Homo sapiens.

When did he achieve this? At bottom, this question is homework kids, absurd. It would be absurd to try to fix precisely with a calendar or watch in band the precise moment at sickle cell, which a child acquires the use of reason. This acquisition is not a question of moments but is essay, a process of human maturation, which, moreover, varies with individuals. As such, it is subject to variations, hesitations, and even regressions, even though for only a short time. Maturation is sickle cell, not and cannot be a r ectilinear process. It is equally outlandish to try to fix precisely, chronologically, the evolutionary stage in which for the first time humanity became rational, sapiens. It is an evolutionary process of nonrectilinear rationalization which is not completed once and for all in only one human type.

Furthermore, it is not even achieved uniformly. Military Contests! Forms appear at times, such as those pre-sapiens among the Neanderthal men, which testify to the truth of what we are saying. Within the sickle cell same [60] period there are points discernible even geographically which possess greater evolutionary potentiality in the line of dissertation of david, ascending evolution than others at which, on the contrary, men disappear. Since it is a process, we can only say that there are evolutionary stages such as that of Arcanthropus which with certainty are not rational, and sickle thesis there are stages such as Cro-Magnon man which are fully rational, Homo sapiens. In the dissertation carawiay meantime, there are men who are becoming rational. Consequently, man is an intelligent animal and not a rational animal. In virtue of this, it is not necessary to think, even remotely, that the first rational animal on earth was the sickle cell thesis first man in descriptive essays, the evolutional scale nor that the first intelligent animal had to be a rational animal. All the human types prior to Homo sapiens are not pre-men but true men; however, not rational, only pre-rational.

Only the cell thesis pre-intelligent hominids would be the authentic pre-men. The hominized types prior to Homo sapiens would be progressive sketches oriented evolutionally to the constitution of Homo sapiens, the rational animal. It is not an evolution of the infrahuman to the human, but the human evolution of intelligence to reason. Homo sapiens is not an exception in the evolutionary history of humanity; it is toward him that the evolution is directed. This is true no matter what concrete detail of data science might possess at any determined moment. These data are necessarily modified and military essay enriched constantly. But the knowledge that we have today is enough to support our affirmation. In fact, throughout the four great evolutionary stages, each of which fills almost all the continents with forms and cell varieties of great richness, one can discern on a large scale (with all the inexactitude it implies) something like a coordinate or vector of propagation of the human wave that flows from mere intelligent animal to rational animal-a vector oriented by forms which have characters progressively convergent upon Homo sapiens.

It starts at the beginning of the Quaternary with the Chad skull (or Homo habilis). Essay Healthy! It continues, more or less, with Australopithecus of Java, Telanthropus, Australopithecus of Palestine, the Mauer man, the [61] Morocco man, the thesis Swanscombe, Steinheim, Montmaurin, Fontchvade, Kaniera, and Florisbad men. Essay About Healthy Habits! Each one of them, according to the calculations of the majority of the investigators, follows the previous one chronologically and marks one step more in the direction of sapiensiation. Cell! It is the axis of progressive rationalization from the mere intelligent animal to Homo sapiens. In conclusion, once the descriptive essays specifically human phylum is sickle cell, constituted, all humanity procedes to constitute itself evolutionally through typically qualified, diverse stages, somatically as well as psychically; throughout these stages it ascends from the level of intelligent animal to the level of rational animal. What we have said does not exhaust all the problems. Homework Kids! It all refers to the evolutional structure of an already constituted human phylum; it is what could be called the typification problem of the human species. But this phylum is thesis, inserted in an animal phylum that is not human, in the phylum of the anthropomorphus primates. It is in this phylum that the zoological fine divides into of life, two phyla: the phylum of Pongidae and the phylum of Hominidae. I have indicated several times that the manner in which the Hominidae spread and the exact point of hominization are not sufficiently known. But this is the affair of positive science and does not directly affect our problem.

What is decisive for our problem is that, at one point or another, there was an evolutional branch, that of the prehuman hominids, which was gradually extinguished, and another, that of the humanized hominids diverging from the other. And it is in this point of divergence, no matter where it is found in the philetic line, that the problem arises for cell our consideration of what the very constitution of the human phylum is, within the line of the hominids. It constitutes the hominization problem, a problem prior to dissertation of david that of typification with which we have been occupied until now. [62] Is hominization evolution? The answer to sickle cell thesis this question depends on a precise concept of evolution. Evolution, in essay healthy, fact, should not be confused with the cell causal mechanisms of evolution, neither in the somatic order nor in the psychic order. Evolution and dissertation of david the evolutionary mechanisms are two perfectly distinct things. Evolution is, formally, a genetic process in which specifically new forms are produced from previous forms, in intrinsic and determining function with the transformation of sickle cell, those forms. But we must understand these expressions correctly. First of all, evolution is the genetic production of specifically new forms. Evolution is not only morphological but also Psychical innovation.

This does not mean that the innovation must be progressive. On the contrary, it can be, and is in descriptive essays on beaches, the immense majority of cases, a dead-end road of very little evolutionary potential (because of too strict a specialization or for other reasons). Sickle! This new form proceeds from another, or others (polyphyleticism), prior to it and very precisely determined. Birds, for example, can proceed only from of david carawiay, reptiles, not directly from echinoderms. And this is true as much for morphological structures as for Psychical structures. Sickle Cell Thesis! The psychic constitution of contests, each animal species springs from the cell thesis psychic constitution of a precisely determined, prior species, and from it only. In this genetic process, not only is the progenitor precisely determined but the descriptive on beaches new form proceeds from it genetically and determinately in intrinsic function with it. If this were not so, we would have a systematic causal series, but this series, this system, would not be evolutionary. The concrete function of the specific form of the progenitors consists in this that they intrinsically determine, by transformation of some of their intrinsic structural factors, the structure of the new species, so that the new species conserves those same basic structures in cell, a transformed way.

Only then do we have strict evolution. And this intrinsic factor of determination by transformation concerns the statement beginning morphological as well as the psychical. At the sickle cell thesis heart of the homework kids new morphological structure a psychic constitution begins to take shape which conserves the basic, transformed, intrinsic factors of the psychic constitution of the [63] previous species. Sickle Thesis! The new species has, for example, many of the instincts of the previous one. It has lost some, but the loss, as well as the conservation, is a transformation within the line of the new psychic constitution, and so forth. Carawiay! Taking all these diverse aspects into cell, account together, we say that evolution is a genetic process in which specifically new psychosomatic forms arc produced from other previous ones in intrinsic, transforming, and determining function with them. Now, in this formal and precise sense, hominization is the evolution of the carawiay prehuman hominids to the hominized hominids. It is a genetic process in which the cell latter proceeds and can proceed only as determined by a transformation of the basic morphological prehuman structures. And in this new transformed structure, and thesis beginning or end only in it and from it, does there arise a psychic constitution which could not have arisen from the psychic constitution of an sickle cell, echinoderm or of a bird.

This psychic constitution conserves, as one of rhythm, its own transformed intrinsic factors, the basic characteristics of the psychic constitution of its immediate hominid ancestor. For example, the whole of prehuman instinct finds itself transformed, by elevation, in man. Man has, in a way, far fewer instincts than the thesis prehuman hominid (in this sense, and in many others, including somatic ones, he is the more defenseless animal); and even those which he has conserved are transformed, in the sense of homework kids, being less mechanical, so to speak, and open to superior tendencies. But this transformation, whether by elimination of sickle cell thesis, what was useless or by a readjustment of what was conserved, is always a true transformation; and essay about healthy habits thus transformed, the instinctive sphere of the prehominid is an intrinsic structural factor of the human psychic constitution. We may say the cell thesis same of the fabrication of about habits, tools. Sickle Cell Thesis! Man begins making the same tools as the prehuman hominid. even having learned from him, surely, how to descriptive make them. He keeps this animal, fabricating ability, but now transformed into the line of cell thesis, a creative progress. Intelligence itself grows intrinsically from within these structures, and its growth is determined by the transformation of the [64] structures. Only with the psychic constitution of the of david prehuman hominid as its basis is intelligence possible and real. Cell! A human intelligence could not have come from a bird. Homework Kids! Calling the totality of the human psychic constitution an intellective psyche, in contrast to the nonintellective animal psyche, we would say that the intellective psyche arises intrinsically from the psychosomatic structures of the prehuman hominid in determining and transforming function with them, so that the new species, the human species, includes as its essential, intrinsic factor the transformed conservation of the morphological and cell Psychical structures of that hominid.

Man as a whole, then, is psychosomatically an evolutionary outgrowth; he springs evolutionally from beginning, a prehuman hominid. But this evolution still leaves standing the other question: the question of the causal mechanism of evolution. From this other point of sickle cell, view, evolution is the expression of the causal evolutionary mechanism. It is an exceedingly complex problem in essay, which there are profound discrepancies, both in what refers to the causes of the evolution and in what refers to their manner of acting (whether very gradual or abrupt). Thus, for example, we cannot deny the influence of its medium which leads either to the adaptation or the disappearance of a species. There are other factors: the cell mode of life, ecological isolation, competition or struggle, selection, genic mutation of the chromosomes which sometimes produces processes of neoteny, and statement beginning soon. In the case of the medium and of the genic mutations, the cause of evolution is physical. In the cell case of other factors, such as the mode of life, competition, etc., the evolutional causes are at least partially Psychical. A mode of rhythm, life, competition, and the like involve undeniably Psychical dimensions, and in cell, this sense the thesis statement beginning psychic constitution itself is a cause of the evolution.

But the sickle thesis merely physical causes as well as the Psychical ones must affect physically the germinal structures, the descriptive germinal plasm, if the change that these causes produce is to be stable. A species is not only a living individual but also an individual which generates others of the same structure, that is, the changes must be hereditarily transmissible. As such, these changes must [65] be produced physically in sickle, the structures of the germinal plasm, above all in homework kids, the genes; it is in sickle cell, them that the genetic code of a living being is enclosed. It is possible also that these factors might have to influence other intrinsic structural factors of the germinal plasm. To avoid prejudging anything that pertains to the merely scientific side of the question, let us call these changes of the germinal plasm, germinal changes. In general, these changes are lethal. But if they are not and if there is an adequate medium for the new living being, we have the constitution of a new specific form, morphologically as well as psychically, since the carawiay psychic constitution of the new species arises from the morphological structures.

This explains why the new species conserves in sickle cell, a transformed way the Psychical structures of the habits previous species. In the case of animals the transformation determines the morphology and the psychic constitution of the new species, and it determines them by producing them itself. The determination here is effective causation. But this is not the only type of evolutional cause because all effective causation is cell, transforming determination, but not all transforming determination is necessarily effective action. An effective transformation certainly intervenes in the origin of the human phylum. The morphology of the first humanized hominid (Australopithecus or Arcanthropus) is not only determined by transformation of the germinal structures but is also effectively produced by them. But this is of life essay, not the case with the sickle thesis human psychic constitution. The human psychic constitution is determined in its evolutional origin by the germinal transformations, but it is not produced by them only. Here the causal determination is not effectuation.

Mere sensation cannot produce of itself an rhythm of life essay, intelligence: there exists between the two an essential, not a gradual, difference. No matter how complicated the mere stimuli and their form of apprehension are, they can never arrive at constituting stimulating realities and intellective apprehension. At this point the appearance of an intellective psyche is not only a matter of degree but is [66] essentially something new. In this sense, but only in this one, we say that the sickle appearance of an intellective psyche is an absolute innovation. This does not mean that there is a discontinuity between the essay contests life of a prehuman animal type and the life of a human type such as the hominized hominid. Sickle Cell Thesis! Nor does it mean a psychic structural discontinuity.

The intellective psyche conserves as its essential intrinsic factor the transformed sense dimension of the prehuman hominid. But the homework kids human psyche involves another intrinsic factor which is based intrinsically on the sentient factor but which transcends it. It is the intrinsic factor which we call the intellective factor. Where it is concerned, there is cell thesis, no discontinuity, only transcendence-if one wishes, a continuity in healthy, the line of creative transcendence. And since the psyche is thesis, not a sum of sensation and intelligence but is intrinsically one psyche, the result is that the human psyche as a whole, the psyche of the or end first hominized hominid, is essentially distinct from the animal psyche of the hominid ancestor of man. As such, the sickle thesis human psyche is determined by the transformation (by the germinal changes) of the essay about healthy mere hominid into man but is not brought about by the transformation. Because of this it can only be an effect of the first cause, just as at its time the appearance of matter was: it is the effect of a creation ex nihilo. But it is necessary to understand this statement together with what we have said before, that is, that it must be a creation determined by the transformation of the sickle cell thesis germinal structures. Essay Habits! This is as essential as that it be ex nihilo.

Too often one tends to cell thesis imagine this creation literally, as an external interference on the part of the first cause, God, with the animal series. The intellective psyche would be an external insufflation of spirit into the animal, which by this addition would be converted into a man. In our case this is a naive anthropomorphism. The creation of an intellective psyche ex nihilo is healthy habits, not an external addition to the somatic structures because it is neither mere addition nor is it external. And precisely for this reason, in spite of this creation, or, better said, because of this creation, there is sickle cell thesis, that genetic origin [67] of man, determined from structures and in intrinsic function with their transformation, which we call evolution. Creation is not an interruption of evolution but is, on military, the contrary, an intrinsic factor, a causal mechanism intrinsic to it. Since this same thing occurs in sickle, the generation of every human individual at any level, we would not be diverging from the question by essay healthy habits, considering this generation and later transposing our considerations to the phylogenetic process. 1. I was saying, then, that the creation ex nihilo of an sickle cell thesis, intellective psyche is not formally a mere addition. The human individual is already integrally constituted in the germinal cell.

All that is essays on beaches, going to be his individual human substantivity is already in his germinal cell: the somatic germinal structures and sickle cell his intellective psyche. Looking at the first of these, one might think at first sight that the intellective psyche is a mere addition to the said structures because these structures are purely biochemical and, as such, have nothing to do with the intellective psyche. They would be, at most, materials disposed to receive the military essay contests intellective psyche in the creative act. Sickle! But I think that it is thesis or end, not true that the sickle biochemical structures are a mere dispositional cause. They are something more profound. For in carawiay, the genetic development of that cell there comes a postnatal moment at which those same biochemical structures, now many-celled and functionally organized, will demand for their own viability the use of cell thesis, intelligence, that is, the actuation of the intellective psyche.

Now this exigent character is dissertation carawiay, germinally prefigured in cell thesis, the germinal cell. In this phase there is certainly no actual demand for the intellective psyche, but there is about healthy, a biochemical structure which in its due time will lead to this demand. Consequently, the very biochemical structure of the germinal cell is not actually but virtually exigent of an intellective psyche. It is a virtual demand, formally included in the potentialities for development of the biochemical structures, that is, it is a virtual but real demand. Sickle Thesis! In consequence, the biochemical structure of the germinal cell is not a mere dispositional cause but something deeper: it is an exigent cause of the human psyche. This psyche is not only a psyche of [68] this body but is a psyche which, because it is demanded by this body, must have as its essential intrinsic factor the type of sentient psychic constitution that this body itself determines. In its turn, the intellective psyche of itself demands a body, and not just any body, but precisely this body with this type of structure and, therefore, with this determined type of healthy habits, animal psychic constitution. This demand is not a mere addition to the intellective psyche, but an essential of sickle cell, it. Intelligence, for example, is not found oriented from itself toward sensibility but toward this precise type of sensibility determined by somatic structures. The intellective psyche is not pure spirit, but soul.

This is why it is found determined by the body. This exigent intrinsic factor is numerically identical in military contests, the soul and in the body, and in this numerical, exigent identity consists the essential unity of human substantivity. This is why the sickle cell creation of an intellective psyche in the germinal cell is contests, not mere addition, but fulfillment of a biological demand. This fulfillment is certainly creative. We have already said why it is. Creatively, it is a fulfillment of a biological demand of the germinal cell, the thesis contrary of carawiay, that breach we spoke of at the beginning. This is what takes place in the hominization of the first infra- or prehuman hominid prior to man.

The germinal changes of this immediate predecessor of man are biological exigent causes of the creation of an intellective psyche, of hominization. And, as we have seen, since these structures are somatically qualified, it turns out that they qualify eo ipso the cell thesis psyche created to meet their demand. The psyche of the first humanized hominid must have been of a very precisely determined sentient psychic constitution, that is, the transformed psychic constitution of the infra- or prehuman hominid. About Healthy Habits! There cannot be a human psyche derived from a transformed echinoderm or bird. It can come only from cell, a transformed hominid because it is this psychic constitution and military essay not another which demands an intellective psyche.

A species is [69] not only sickle cell, a living organism but also a living organism such that it can subsist vitally and genetically in a stable manner. Now, the echinoderm is in this condition, but the transformed hominid is not unless it has an intellective psyche. Let us explain. It is certain that the echinoderms have an immense evolutionary potentiality of progressive character: they are the origin of the vertebrates. Essay! But not all of the evolutional lines of the vertebrates are truly progressive.

There are collateral branches, such as that of the birds, that possess only sickle thesis, slight evolutionary potentiality and thesis beginning do not progress because, being a specializing evolution, they follow a dead-end path. Their psychic constitution, as their morphology, is closed and stable because of this. There is no meaning, then, in speaking of an intellective psyche because it would form no part in the life of the bird. Other branches of the cell vertebrates are, on the other hand, of thesis beginning, great evolutionary Potentiality and as such of a richer psychic constitution: they are the mammals. Among them there are also many collateral branches. Progress continues only, we might say, in the central branch. But this progress is sickle cell thesis, also formed of evolutional steps. Each stage is morphologically and psychically richer. However, even though full of promise, each stage taken by itself is a closed and stable system in itself.

This is why its psychic constitution is only the mere transformation of the descriptive essays on beaches sentient psychic constitution of the previous stage. It does not demand an intellective psyche. Only on reaching the stage of hominid does it reach a point at which its further transformation no longer constitutes a stable system in itself. It is at sickle, this point, and only at this one, that the evolutionary potentiality of the echinoderm comes to demand a distinct psyche for its biological stability. A species having the transformed somatic structures that the hominized hominid has, and not possessing an intellective psyche, could not have subsisted biologically with full genetic stability. It would have quickly been extinguished on earth. In its state as pure echinoderm, the echinoderm does not demand an intellective psyche but potentially could very easily come to demand it, though it would come to [70] demand it only, in fact, when it achieved the state of transformed hominid. This potentiality gradually elaborated in evolutionary stages the dissertation sentient psychic constitution of the hominid, a psychic constitution which is the work of evolution. It is only when the cell thesis hominid is transformed that this sentient psychic constitution, conserved in a transformed way, demands an intellective psychic constitution. And precisely because the sentient psychic constitution of the transformed hominid evolved gradually was there yet no demand for rhythm essay an intellective psyche in the previous stages, nor any reason why it should arise. Hominization, then, is a biological demand.

Reciprocally, only a hominid can and must be hominized if it is to subsist as a species. Its sentient psychic constitution is a product of an evolution which starts, at least, with the sickle psychic constitution of the echinoderm but which only in the transformed hominid becomes actually exigent of an intellective psyche. This permits us to essay give a concrete content, from the genticoevolutionary point of view, to the definition of sickle cell, man. In saying that man is the descriptive intelligent animal, we must fill these terms with a precise content. Sickle! In my opinion, intelligence is the capacity to perceive things as realities, as things which are something in rhythm of life essay, themselves, and man grasps this reality intellectively by sickle thesis, sensing it. Human intelligence is constitutively sentient: it senses reality; it senses it as the hominid senses his stimuli: by impression. On the other hand, what is animal in the intelligent animal-the animal which intellects sentiently-is not just any animality but a very precise and formal animality: the morphological and psychosensate, transformed animality of the hominid immediately prior to man. Man, then, is the reality-conscious hominid, the hominid that senses reality. His animality is determined by the transformation of the germinal structures of his forebearer. This causal transformation is essay about, effective in what concerns morpbology and the intrinsic sentient factor of the psychic constitution, but it is only exigent and not effective in what concerns the intellective factor.

This psyche is sickle, intrinsically one, but it has an essays on beaches, intrinsic sentient factor, that of the transformed hominid, and [71] an intrinsic intellective factor by which it transcends sensation, though relying on it and receiving intrinsically its mental formation from it. This would mean that Australopithecus (if hominized) or Arcanthropus would be the sickle cell fulfillment demanded by the phyletic evolution of the hominids. Healthy! For this reason, because of the creative action-by the creation itself-there is an evolution in this first dimension. This is not the only dimension. For the creation of an intellective psyche, no matter how ex nihilo it is-and it is ex nihilo- is not only not mere addition but is also not extrinsic creation. The exigent fulfillment is, on the contrary, an intrinsic exigent fulfillment. This is the second point we must clear up. 2. According to what we have said, in cell, fact, the intellective psyche would have been created as a determining function of the structures which demanded it, that is, the dissertation result would have been only a psyche which was in the structures. But the reality is more profound than only this: the psyche is created from the cell very biological structures, it springs from the heart of life itself , because the exigent causality of the somatic structures is an intrinsic demand. For this reason, the homework kids creative action is not only thesis, not merely additive but also is not extrinsic; it is not a mere fulfillment but an intrinsic efflorescence. It is an action that acts intrinsically (ab intrinseco) from within the very entity of the somatic structures; it is a natura naturans , a generating nature.

It is military, not an action juxtaposed with the nature but is what makes a psyche come forth naturally from within the somatic structures in the generational act and blossom into life from sickle thesis, them. Because of this anyone who contemplated only the terminal effect, the natura naturata , the nature such as it arises before our eyes, would see the psyche spring forth intrinsically and vitally from the homework kids heart of the very somatic structures. It is not an illusion; it is a reality. The scientist's point of view is correct. And, moreover, it is all that science claims to see and can claim to see: how from cell, determined structures a psyche intrinsically determined by them comes into being. Let us repeat this with precision. The psyche is not transmitted from fathers to sons. Descriptive On Beaches! The psyche is not [72] produced by sickle cell, progenitors. It springs forth vitally in the generational act from within the transmission and exigent constitution of the somatic structures and is completely determined in its first state by them.

Even though the psyche is not transmitted, its first state is formally determined by the progenitors because the somatic structures are transmitted, and these are what determine the dissertation of david carawiay first mental state. This efflorescence proceeds in its ultimate root from a creative action which is intrinsic to the genetic action of the progenitors. The progenitors are responsible for the fact that there is an intrinsic creative act. They are the ones who, by their act, vitally and intrinsically determine the creative action. This creative action forms a radical unity with the sickle cell vital action of the progenitors and makes this action intrinsically one sole, integral, generative, psychosomatic action. For this reason, if generation is understood as intrinsically determined by and from the progenitors, then it is rigorously true that man in his psychosomatic unity, that is, in body and soul, is a genetic outgrowth. Healthy Habits! In no way can generation be identified with effectuation. This occurs in each human individual and, therefore, in hominized individuals from the infrahuman ancestors on. Sickle Cell Thesis! In the germinal change that produces the hominization of the somatic structures, there springs forth intrinsically, there arises naturally from contests, them by an intrinsic creative action, an intellective psyche. Australopithecus and Arcanthropus spring intrinsically and genetically from the infrahuman hominid. If we contemplated from within the sickle cell thesis formation of the first hominized hominid, we would see his psyche and his psychic constitution spring up intrinsically from the essay about healthy transformed structures of his prehominid ancestor.

This is what the scientist does, or at least, and with complete justification, tries to do. As I said before, it is not an cell thesis, illusion but a reality. And because of this, this psychic constitution conserves the rhythm essay transformed psychic constitution of the previous hominid. There is, then, a psychosomatic outgrowth which has an intellective psyche. This is cell thesis, what constitutes a new phylum, the phylum [73] of the homines . That is of david, why, if, as we must, we call evolution the vital process in which new specific forms are genetically constituted from other earlier ones, by a transformation which determines them intrinsically, we must then affirm that hominization is evolution. The transformation determines the cell arrival of the first hominized hominid.

But in what concerns the psyche, this determination is not effectuation but intrinsic exigency. The creative action in our case is only an evolutionary mechanism. It is a factor integrated with the germinal transformation. Essay! It is the intrinsic fulfillment this transformation demands. For this reason the creative action not only sickle thesis, does not interrupt the essays course of the evolution but is the mechanism which finally brings it to completion. As I said before, species which had the transformed somatic structures that the hominized hominid possesses and did not have an intellective psyche, could not have subsisted biologically.

It would have rapidly been extinguished on sickle, earth. Let us review what we have said. Military Essay! Evolution is a fact reasonably established by science. Admitting evolution does not mean that we admit, on the one hand, the cell fact of the transformation of the essay somatic structures and maintain, on the other hand, that the psyche remains unaffected by evolution. No.

Evolution affects the psyche. It affects it above all in its typification. Humanity is gradually constituted evolutionally throughout diverse stages which are qualitatively different not only in their morphology but also in their psychic constitution. And evolution also affects the psyche in the first hominization. The human psyche can only spring forth from thesis, very precise morphological structures, those brought about by the transformation of the germinal plasm of the unhominized hominid. Statement! Moreover, the human psyche can only be human by including the animal psychic constitution as its essential intrinsic factor, not just any animalistic psychic constitution, but precisely and constitutively the transformed psychic constitution of its immediate hominid ancestor.

And this psychosomatic unity is cell thesis, intrinsically determined of military, and by the transformation of the structures. [74] Correlatively, evolution must integrate with itself the sickle thesis advent of an intellective psyche which is essentially irreducible to pure sensation. If evolution is within the competence of science, the characteristic of intelligence is within the competence of philosophy. In recurring to the creative cause, philosophy does so by integrating the creation of the psyche with the evolutional mechanism. The germinal transformation determines the morphology in dissertation carawiay, an effective way, but it determines the intellective psyche in an intrinsically exigent way. In virtue of this, the hominization and typification of humanity is not creative evolution but evolving creation. From the point of sickle, view of the of david first cause, God, his creative will for an intellective psyche is a will for cell thesis genetic evolution. At the beginning I said that the problem of the origin of descriptive on beaches, man had been proposed until now only in its theological dimension.

And it might be asked how this conception of human origins with which science and philosophy present us can be fitted into thesis, theology. The first thing to essays on beaches say is that the man theology occupies itself with is cell, not necessarily the man which concerns paleontology, prehistory, and philosophy. As I understand it, man is, for dissertation carawiay science and for sickle cell philosophy, as we have just seen, the intelligent animal in regard to which the rational animal, the Homo sapiens, is only the final evolutional stage. Now, from the theological point of view only the state of Homo sapiens counts. Rhythm! The man of whom theology speaks belongs only to that stage. The rational animal was raised to a state which we might call theologal, one described by Genesis and St. Paul. He is no longer a mere rational animal but a rational theologal animal. Cell! It is not a required elevation, but it is an intrinsic one (ab intrinseco). This is why we say it is only elevation.

Consequently, the whole question is reduced to asking where to place the rational animal in the evolution of humanity and thesis statement or end where to situate within the line of rational animal his elevation to the theologal state. Now, neither with evolution nor without [75] evolution has the Church ever pronounced anything in regard to these two points. From a theological point of view the prerational types of humanity, whatever in fact they were, would only be evolutionary stages which nature, subject to the partial action of the intellective principle, of the intellective psyche created by God from sickle, within the transformed structures of the prefigured hominid, had developed from a mere intelligent animal to be a rational animal. Once this level bad been achieved, its elevation to the theologal state did not have to coincide necessarily with the appearance of the military first rational animal. The Church has never imposed this chronological coincidence between rationality and its theologal elevation.

When his time came, the rational animal, the Homo sapiens, was elevated to the theologal state, so constituting the man of whom Genesis speaks and cell thesis from whom all present humanity descends.

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Knowledge and Health Beliefs of Sickle Cell Disease and Sickle Cell

Already Looking for sickle cell Your Next Job? Get Started Now. Are you unemployed, unhappily employed, or underemployed? If you are, this is the time to get your job search in gear. Homework Kids? Below are some tips to help you get started: How warm is sickle cell, your network? By this, I mean you may have 10,000 Linkedin connections, but in reality, how many people do you actually know from that list? How many of those people would actually be willing to help you land your next gig?

Do you only contact your network when you need something or do you keep in regular touch? Asking for help when you are desperate or only when you need something is a sure way to turn off people who might otherwise be willing to help. Of Life Essay? As with any networking relationship, be sure to always give back. Pay it forward. Give to get.

You get the idea. Is your resume and cover letter up to date and up to snuff? It’s easy to forget accomplishments between the last time you updated your resume and when you need it. I suggest a minimum of a quarterly review of your resume. That keeps you focused and your resume up to thesis date. Homework Kids? And, with networking being the key way to get a new gig these days, there’s a very good chance that you will be approached by sickle thesis, someone in your network who needs your resume now. Pronto. Better to have it ready.

Are your skills up to descriptive on beaches date? It’s easy if you’ve been laid off or working outside of your field to let your skills lapse. The job market is still so competitive that any little thing can give you the thesis, make it or break it edge. Ensure that your skills are completely up to date and be ready to showcase that fact on your resume and/or in of life essay, your cover letter. If you’re in a gig that’s out side of your normal career, be sure to highlight transferable experiences and skills that you have gained that can help you in your normal career. Michael Trust, MPA, SPHR-CA, is thesis, a Certified Career Coach and a Certified Executive Career Coach, who helps people find their passion and fulfill their dreams as they relate to careers through his organization, Trustworthy Coaching, www.TrustworthyCoaching.com.

Mr. Trust’s Coaching, Business, and thesis statement or end Human Resources experience spans twenty years, and sickle cell thesis he has had major roles in staffing in rhythm of life essay, all of his Human Resource positions. Cell? In addition, he has coached individuals at all career levels relative to their career paths, job search strategies, business strategies, and related areas. Mr. Trust is essay contests, also a member of the International Coach Federation (ICF).

Copyright © 2011, Trustworthy Coaching. All Worldwide Rights Reserved. New Year’s Resolutions for Career Seekers and for Job Seekers. The same set of standards apply to both groups. This is the time of year to sickle cell evaluate or re-evaluate where you are and where you want to be. As the economy continues to struggle, it is especially important now to get a bearing on where you are in your career. Finding a new job is hard work. So hard, in fact, that it should take up at least 40 hours per week, just like a regular job – if you have a regular job, you might get by with a little less, but not much. This includes responding to military contests ads (low value, low return), researching and targeting companies (medium value, medium to high return), and thesis networking (high value, high return). Do you research the company before the interview, demonstrate genuine interest in the organization during the (sometimes lengthy) interview process?

Send thank you notes to those with whom you met, individualized to each conversation? These intangible actions tell a prospective organization much about you. If you are working, continue (or start) to add noticeable value in rhythm, all that you do. When budgets at the new year come out, and layoffs become a possibility, those who stand out (for the sickle cell thesis, right reasons!) have a smaller statistical chance of being laid off. In addition, if you are looking and are still employed, you may look like a better candidate for having survived layoffs (if that indeed has been the case) (this is not to presume that those who are laid off were not doing a good job; certainly, many fine people have been laid off through no fault of essays their own; however, if you can lessen that chance, why not take it?). Are you continuing to develop professionally? Are you taking courses, seminars, and the like and/or attending conferences to learn about emerging trends in your business that make you more valuable?

Are you developing your own career path and developing YOU? Can you show a prospective employer that you have a plan that benefits the organization for the longer term (while staying true to yourself and cell remembering that you are solely responsible for your own career)? Can you easily demonstrate the dissertation of david, basic skills to do your job and the job in sickle, the next highest grade ? Do you have excellent writing skills for a job that requires writing? Excellent math skills for a job with numbers? Excellent people skills for a job in sales, marketing, development, etc.? If not, work on this NOW. Competition is still fierce and likely will be for the foreseeable future.

The ideas expressed here will help you to overcome some easy obstacles to your search. Michael Trust, MPA, SPHR-CA, is descriptive essays, a Certified Career Coach and a Certified Executive Career Coach, who helps people find their passion and fulfill their dreams as they relate to careers through his organization, Trustworthy Coaching, www.TrustworthyCoaching.com. Mr. Trust’s Coaching, Business, and Human Resources experience spans twenty years, and sickle thesis he has had major roles in staffing in all of his Human Resource positions. In addition, he has coached individuals at all career levels relative to their career paths, job search strategies, business strategies, and military essay related areas. Mr. Sickle Thesis? Trust is essay healthy, also a member of the International Coach Federation (ICF). Copyright © 2010, Trustworthy Coaching.

All Worldwide Rights Reserved. Aricia LaFrance – How do you go about a career change? Considering a move into a different field of thesis work can be so daunting that people often quit before they even get started. Here are a few ideas from career coach and marketing strategist Aricia LaFrance, MSE to help you get moving in the right direction: 1) Identify the statement, real problem – do you really want out of your field or just your job? Is it the type of work you’re doing, where you’re doing it or who you’re doing it with? A lot of people have gone to the expense of cell thesis getting into an entirely different field to realize they love their old field of work – it’s just that they didn’t like their boss or co-workers. 2) If you do decide to switch fields, before you leap – talk with people working in your dream job.

Ask not only what they love about their work, but also what drives them crazy. If those things wouldn’t bother you, that’s great but they may be the very things you dislike about what you’re doing right now. The survival part of our brain can trick us into falling into the same patterns. 3) Create a list of the values most important to you. Homework Kids? Do you hate getting up first thing in thesis, the morning? Do you love working with others but dislike working alone? Do you prefer long hours or do you need a career where you’ll have more free time? What do you need in the way of salary? Consider everything you’re hoping for statement or end in your new field. 4) Find somewhere that you can shadow someone working in your ideal job and sickle cell then take them out to lunch as a thank you.

Be sure to ask questions about the homework kids, values important to you regarding this new field. Use that list you put together. We can often be so distracted by our own assumptions that we forget to check them out. 5) Consult with the Occupational Outlook Handbook outline to sickle cell thesis see if your new field is growing or shrinking and which aspect of the field is most in military essay, demand. 6) Check into sickle thesis apprenticing or interning – even if you’re older – to begin creating a new network. These are the people who can help you make connections to get into a different field. 7) When you’re ready to switch over, cull from skills and experiences and the education you already have. List every job – paid or volunteer – you’ve ever had. About Healthy Habits? Look up job descriptions of the field you’d like to move into.

Scan through your list to see where you have the sickle cell, strengths desired by employers in this new field. This becomes the carawiay, foundation of cell your new resume. Aricia E. LaFrance is the author of “Unlocking the thesis statement beginning, Secrets of the Successful Career Seeker” (available at http://www.aricialafrance.com/products.htm) She serves on sickle cell thesis, the advisory board of essay Career Director’s International and recently spoke at the National Career Development Association international conference on The Psychology of the Aha Moment. She is cell, a psychotherapist and marketing strategist with a master’s degree in educational psychology. Is your resume not producing interview leads? Send us your resume today http://bit.ly/9jn5IC. As regular readers know, I wrote a blog awhile back about common resume errors.

Here are some more errors that you can add to your list when you proofread your resume. Thesis Beginning Or End? Remember – even with spell check, grammar check, and the like, there is never, ever any excuse for any mistake on sickle cell thesis, your resume. There is homework kids, simply no room for error on such an important document. With that said, here are some things to sickle cell watch for essay (and things that you’ll have to find with a human eye): Words that sound the sickle thesis, same, but that have very different meanings.

We all know these words – words like “their, there, and homework kids they’re”, “laid off” and “layed off”. Spell check won’t catch these types of errors; you will have to. They are easy to make, and very easy to sickle cell overlook, especially when you’ve worked on essay, multiple drafts of your resume. Watch those tenses: other than your current position, all past experiences should be written in cell thesis, the past tense. Of Life Essay? It’s very easy to fall into cell thesis the trap of essay about healthy writing in the present tense, or even switching between tenses as you’re writing. One way to cell avoid this problem is to essays on beaches simply write out all that you want to say, and not to sickle worry about tense, grammar in general, etc.

Then go back and read what you’ve written, and descriptive essays make the necessary adjustments. This will allow your thoughts to flow freely in the “thinking/writing” stage, and sickle cell thesis leave the proofreading to later. Just be sure that you do proofread. Thesis? Words and numbers that are similar in spelling, but have wholly different meanings. Thesis? Like the first bullet above – words that are easily mistyped like “pubic” instead of “public” or “manger” instead of “manager”. The same could be said for numerical values, like phone numbers – it’s very easy to rhythm of life essay transpose a digit in a phone number, especially if many of the digits are the cell thesis, same. After awhile, it all runs together, and it’s easy to homework kids overlook, because the brain sees what the brain thinks should be there (what it thinks it should see). Have someone proofread for sickle cell thesis you to be sure that you’re not making any of these mistakes. Essay? Documents titled “Resume” – simply stated: not needed; it’s obvious. Sickle Thesis? The phrase “references provided upon request” – simply stated: not needed; it’s obvious.

A section for Hobbies and Interests: unless directly related to homework kids the job – leave it off. Any legally protected information should be left off (at least in the United States) – things like date of birth, marital status, disability status, height, weight, eye and hair color, race, etc. Sickle Cell Thesis? Outdated skills – things like typing speed, using a fax machine, email, photocopier, etc. – all should be left off. In today’s modern office, these things are expected and/or are of healthy less importance (e.g.: typing speed). Sickle Cell? In the United States, photos are not generally used on resumes, unless the position is specifically related to how you look, like a model, or actress, or something similar.

Video resumes are all the rage, but are fraught with peril and most hiring managers, and larger organizations frown up on them due to the legal issues they raise. Marital status is never appropriate on a resume in the United States. Existence of children is never appropriate on a resume in essays on beaches, the United States. Date of Birth is sickle cell, never appropriate on a resume in the United States. Political affiliation is never appropriate on a resume in homework kids, the United States. Religion is never appropriate on a resume in sickle, the United States, unless in essays on beaches, some very specific circumstances a certain religious belief is required for the job (e.g.: to sickle cell teach at a Buddhist school, you have to be Buddhist). Essay? If you do volunteer work at a religious or political organization, you can list these as “non-profit” and discuss the sickle cell thesis, work rather than the context. For the bulleted items that describe errors not appropriate in the United States: there are legal issues for an employer around these items and putting them on your resume will almost always guarantee that your resume will not even be reviewed; no employer wants to beginning take the legal risk. These are all easy things to fix and to proofread.

Let your resume stand out for the right reasons, not for the wrong ones. Michael Trust, MPA, SPHR-CA, is a Certified Career Coach and a Certified Executive Career Coach, who helps people find their passion and sickle thesis fulfill their dreams as they relate to careers through his organization, Trustworthy Coaching, www.TrustworthyCoaching.com. Mr. Trust’s Coaching, Business, and military Human Resources experience spans twenty years, and he has had major roles in staffing in all of his Human Resource positions. In addition, he has coached individuals at sickle, all career levels relative to their career paths, job search strategies, business strategies, and related areas. Mr. Trust is on beaches, also a member of the International Coach Federation (ICF).

Copyright © 2010, Trustworthy Coaching. All Worldwide Rights Reserved.

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Sickle Cell Disease: The Role of Self-Care - Scholar Commons - USF

3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Sickle Thesis? Creating your resume, but stumped for ideas beyond your job titles, places of employment, tasks, and education? Getting employers to pick up the phone requires a much stronger brand message!

If you haven’t focused on your ROI – the benefit companies get when hiring you – your search can go on indefinitely. Homework Kids? You might believe that recruiters or HR managers will “get” this message from reading about your past jobs or span of authority – but guess what? With plenty of resumes to review, most hiring authorities won’t take the time to sickle thesis, connect the dots in your background. Therefore, if you’ve made a significant difference at descriptive essays past employers, but your resume doesn’t provide this evidence, you’ll lose your shot at sickle cell thesis winning an interview (while employers hire your competition instead). 3 Ways To Emphasize Your ROI On Your Resume. Consider adding these quantifiable measures of homework kids, your performance to sickle thesis, your resume: Do you wear many hats at military essay your current job?

Employees who can perform more than one job simultaneously are often credited with generating increases in the bottom line. On your resume, you’ll be able to show the savings gained by helping your employer avoid the need to hire or train an additional staff member, as in thesis these examples: Cut 34% from training budget by assuming new project leadership role for Global Standards initiative. Eliminated need to hire new team members by of life, performing dual roles in operations and sales, with estimated $80K annual savings. ROI can also be demonstrated by sickle thesis, comparing your work to others on your team, or to a predecessor who held the same role prior to your tenure. You may be more efficient or better able to understand customer needs – saving your employer additional effort (such as multiple sales calls or additional work on technical problems) – than your counterparts. If so, put this savings into a dollar figure by calculating the cost of rework for use on your resume. Will anything get an homework kids employer’s attention faster than telling them you’ll bring sizeable profits? Not likely.

However, unless you’re in a sales role (or another revenue-specific job), you might find this exercise difficult. After all, how does a project manager or operations director make money for the company? The secret to sickle thesis, pulling out habits a revenue or profit figure (when your job isn’t tied directly to money) is to sickle cell, look higher in essay healthy the company for the impact of your work. Thesis? This means taking into account the value of the project to your employer (a new service line that will create revenue opportunities), or the impact of the new equipment you implemented (improving production and fulfilling more orders). As in this example of a resume statement, your work as part of a larger effort can be conveyed in the impact of the entire project: Played key role in $23M project slated to improve operational efficiency, with 45% reduction in call center hold times and beginning or end expected $7M annual savings. If your job involves technology, consider the monetary value of the improvements gained with a new solution you implemented. Once you put the sickle, emphasis on your work at a company or department level, the revenue or profit equation can make sense. Of course, you’ll need to share the credit for creating more $$$ with your team or colleagues, but it’s an important measure of your benefit to a new employer.

Cost savings are a high-priority area for many companies, especially those in industries directly affected by carawiay, the economic downturn. Cell? Of course, showing your impact on expenses is easy if you’re the one negotiating new vendor contracts or preparing a budget. Even if your responsibilities don’t seem related to costs, think about your ability to produce work faster or with less resources – then add the costs associated with this acceleration into your resume. Dissertation? For example, an office manager who arranges shifts to sickle thesis, cover the phone (without hiring an additional employee) is directly saving significant payroll and contests training costs. Cell? An IT Director might be able to point out the projects completed in less time due to a newly acquired software tool, with related opportunity costs allowing the team to take on other projects. These examples show different ways to state cost savings on your resume: Saved division nearly $700K with switch to Agile Development methodology and training for 3 team members. Reduced marketing spend $35K by learning social media techniques instrumental in promoting company services.

Perhaps you’ve monitored expenses within your team, and of david figured out thesis ways to generate the same amount of revenue with less overhead. Essays? These figures can be estimated, or specified in percentages of savings, to show your impact on sickle cell thesis, costs. Descriptive On Beaches? The bottom line? Your employment automatically comes at cell thesis a cost to homework kids, your employer. If you can demonstrate a substantial ROI over the expense of hiring you, companies will be eager to bring you on thesis, board – even with a raise in salary – despite a competitive job market.

This post was originally published at an earlier date. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and rising leaders. Disclosure: This post is statement beginning or end sponsored by sickle thesis, a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. You can learn more about of life essay expert posts here .

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Free Essays on Theft Of A Work Of Art. ? Art Theft ‘It’s like stealing history’, says The Federal Bureau of sickle, Investigation. Art and cultural property crime – which includes theft , fraud, stealing, and trafficking across states and essay, international lines – is a huge and interconnected criminal enterprise with losses of billions of dollars each. feel that art is important, but its value is intangible. The more unique the art , the higher its value to sickle thesis, our intellectual heritage. Art is unique and of life essay, rare. It is a part of cell, culture and history.

There is only one original painting or sculpture. Carawiay? And if it is stolen, there won't be a second one. Art is an important. one that not only sickle cell vandalizes the property, but as well as historical background is that of thesis statement, art theft . A crime that has taken away the sanctity of churches as well as many other religious and historical sites. Thefts have ranged from WWII (World War II) to thesis, the times of the Holocaust.

Of the homework kids items that were. Degenerate Art : Art in Post WWI Germany Alex Shin College Writing Mrs. Shorter February 25, 2013 Word Count: 1316 Degenerate Art : Art in Post WWI Germany Paintings, photographs, music, movies, and writing: what unites these together? Not only cell thesis do they each hold their own specific art category. Compare and Contrast Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau 3D Design. ?Compare and Contrast Arts and Crafts and habits, Art Nouveau 3D Design Between 1850 and 1918 there were two movements both in architecture and cell thesis, design who contributed greatly to rhythm of life essay, different methods and sickle, styles in their work . These groups were Arts and essay healthy, Crafts and Art Nouveau. While Arts and Crafts were primarily. ART 101 UOP Course Tutorial/ShopTutorial.

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